Pediatric myocarditis . Focal or diffuse inflammatory process of the myocardium , due to multiple causes that can affect the myofibril itself, the interstitium or its vascular components.
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- 1 Causes, incidence and risk factors
- 1 Other causes of pediatric myocarditis
- 2 Symptoms
- 3 Signs and tests
- 4 Treatment
- 5 Complications
- 6 Forecast
- 7 Sources
Causes, incidence and risk factors
The myocarditis is a common little disorder. In children , it is usually caused by viral infections that reach the heart , such as influenza (flu) virus, Coxsackie virus, and adenovirus . However, it can also occur during or after other viral or bacterial infections.
Other causes of pediatric myocarditis
- Allergic reactions to certain medications.
- Exposure to certain chemicals in the environment.
- Infections due to fungior parasites .
- Some diseases (autoimmune disorders) that cause inflammation throughout the body.
- Some drugs.
Pediatric myocarditis tends to be more severe in newborns and young infants than in children older than two years.
Symptoms may be mild at first and difficult to detect. In newborns and babies, symptoms can sometimes come on suddenly and may include:
- Delayed development or little weight gain
- Difficulty feeding
- Feverand other symptoms of infection
- Heart failure
- Low urinary output (a sign of decreased kidney activity)
- Pale hands and feet (a sign of poor circulation)
- Fast breathing
- Fast heart rate
Symptoms in children over the age of two may also include:
- Pain in the abdominal area and nausea
- Chest pain
- Swelling (edema) in the legs, feet, and face
Signs and tests
Pediatric myocarditis can be difficult to diagnose because signs and symptoms often mask signs and symptoms associated with other heart and lung diseases.
- The doctor may listen to a fast heartbeat or abnormal heart sounds while listening to the child’s chest with a stethoscope. A physical exam can detect fluid in the lungs and swelling in the legs in older children.
- There may be signs of infection, including fever, rash, red throat, burning eyes, and joint swelling.
- A chest x-ray may show an enlarged (swollen) heart. Electrocardiographyand echocardiography should also be performed .
There is no cure for myocarditis, although myocardial inflammation usually goes away on its own over time. The goal of treatment is to support cardiac activity and treat the underlying cause of myocarditis. Most children with this condition are hospitalized. Activity can tire the heart and is therefore frequently limited. Treatment may include:
- Antibioticsto fight infection.
- Anti-inflammatorydrugs called steroids to control inflammation.
- Intravenous immunoglobulin(IVIG), a medicine made from substances the body produces to fight infection to control the inflammatory process
- Diuretic medications to remove excess water from the body.
- Medicines to treat heart failure and abnormal heart rhythms
- Enlarged heart leading to decreased cardiac activity dilated cardiomyopathy
- Heart failure
- Heart rhythm problems
The child’s prognosis depends on the cause and his general health. With proper treatment, most children make a full recovery. However, some may have permanent heart disease . Newborns are at the highest risk for disease and serious complications (including death) due to myocarditis. In rare cases, an urgent heart transplant is necessary