The Old Turkic script(in Turkish : Orhun alfabesi or Orhun yazısı ; in Mongolian : Орхон бичиг ) transl. Orkhon bichig , also known as the ancient Turkish alphabet , the ancient Turkish alphabet , the Gothic alphabet ( göktürk or köktürk ) and the Orkhon-Yenisei alphabet is the oldest known form of writing used to write in the Turkish language . [ 1 ] It was developed by the Gothurks (also called ( göktürksor köktürks ), a Turkish people who in Mongolia and Turkestan founded the first empire entitled “Turkish” in Mongolia and Turkestan . The oldest traces of this alphabet are the inscriptions of Orkhon , found in the valley of the same name , in Mongolia, dating from the 7th century . [ 2 ]
The Orkhon alphabet is sometimes called Orkhon runes or Turkish runes because of the similarity of the characters to the Scandinavian runes . The alphabet consists of 38 letters. Only 4 symbols are used for vowels , the remaining 34 being used to write 21 consonants . This inequality is related to the Turkish’s vowel harmony . It has some variants, like the alphabet of Yenisei , nicknamed Siberian runes, and the old Hungarian alphabet .
Written language is the old Turkish , which is part of the eastern branch of the Turkic languages and is not direct predecessor of the Turkish of Turkey , which belongs to the southern branch. It is usually written from right to left.
The alphabet was used not only by the droplets, but also by other contemporary Turkish kannates. After the fall of the Goturco Khanate in the 8th century , the alphabet of Orkhon was used by the Uighur Empire (742–848). A variant used in the Yenisei valley by Kyrgyz Yenisei (khakas), present in Kyrgyz inscriptions of the 9th century is also known and is likely to be related to the writing of the Talas of Turkestan valley and the ancient Hungarian alphabet of the 10th century .
Origins OF Old Turkic script
The most accepted hypothesis for the origin of the Orkhon script is that it derives from variants of the Aramaic alphabet or more specifically the Pálavi alphabet ( Middle Persian ) and in a non- cursive form of the Sogdian alphabet , as suggested by Vilhelm Thomsen , or the caroste alphabet , namely of its variant found in the Issyk kurgan .
Other theories include derivation from tamgas (seals or emblems used by nomadic peoples), a hypothesis suggested by W. Thomsen in 1893 or from Chinese writing . Turkish inscriptions prior to the Orkhon inscriptions used about 150 symbols, which may mean that the tamgas started by imitating Chinese characters and were then gradually refined to form an alphabet.
The Danish hypothesis links Orkhon’s writing to Chinese accounts of a renegade and dignitary from the second century BC from the state of Yan named Zhonghang Yue (in Chinese : 中行 说 ) who “taught the Shanyu (rulers of the Xiongnu ) to write official letters for the Chinese cut on a 31 cm long wooden board (牍), and using a large seal and paste “. [ 3 ] The same sources say that when the Xiongnu wrote something down or transmitted a message, they cut into a piece of wood ( ko-mu ), and also mention a “Hu script”. In Noin-Ulaand other Mongolian Hun burial sites and in the region north of Lake Baikal , the artifacts feature more than twenty engraved characters, many of them identical or very similar to the letters of the Orkhon script. [ 4 ]
Variants [ edit | edit source code ]
Reproduction of the Rjukoku and Toyok manuscripts (see note [ nt 1 ] )
Variants of the alphabet have been found from Mongolia and Xinjiang in the east to the Balkans in the west, dated between the 8th and 13th centuries. These alphabets were divided into three groups by Kyzlasov: [ 6 ]
- Asian (which includes that of Orkhon itself)
- southern European .
The Asian group consists of three alphabets:
- Orkhon alphabet, used by droplets between the 7th and 10th centuries
- Yenisei alphabet
- Talas alphabet, derived from Yenisei and used by the kangly (or kangli or k’ang-chü) or by the carlucos between the 8th and 10th centuries. Examples of this alphabet are found in the rock inscriptions found in 1897 in Terek-Say ( current Kyrgyzstan ), the text Koysary , registration of Bakaiyr throat, entries 6 and 12 Kalbak-Tash. 29 letters of this alphabet were identified. [7 ]
The Eurasian group consists of five alphabets:
- From Achiktash , used in Sogdiana between the 7th and 10th centuries
- Southern Yenisei, used by droplets between the 8th and 10th centuries
- Two very similar alphabets, that of Don , used in the Cazar khanate between the 8th and 10th centuries, and that of Kuban , used by proto-Bulgarians between the 8th and 10th centuries. Inscriptions of these two alphabets were found in the pontic steppe and on the banks of the Kama River .
- De Tisza , used by Pechenegans (patzinaks) between the 8th and 10th centuries
There are several alphabets that are not completely known, due to the few inscriptions available. Evidence in the study of Turkish inscriptions includes bilingual inscriptions in Turkish and Chinese, contemporary Turkish inscriptions written with the Greek alphabet , literal translations in Slavic languages, and fragments of religious cursive script from Manicheans and Buddhists , as well as legal documents from the 8th to X found in Xinjiang.
Characters OF Old Turkic script
|Use||Symbols.||Transliteration and transcription|
|vowels||THE||/ a /
, / and /
|I||/ ɯ /
, / i / , / j /
|THE||/ o /
, / ø /
|U||/ u /
, / y / , / w /
|D¹||/ d /||D²||/ d /|
|G¹||/ g /||G²||/ g /|
|L¹||/ l /||L²||/ l /|
|N¹||/ n /||N²||/ n /|
|R¹||/ r /||R²||/ r /|
|T¹||/ t /||T²||/ t /|
|Y¹||/ j /||Y²||/ j /|
|Q||/ g /||K||/ k /|
|-Ch||/ tʃ /|
|-M||/ m /|
|-SH||/ ʃ /|
|-Z||/ z /|
|-NG||/ ŋ /|
|ICH, CHI, CH||/ itʃ /
, / tʃi / , / tʃ /
|IQ, IQ, Q||/ ɯq /
, / qɯi / , / q /
|QO, QU, Q||/ oq /
, / uq / ,
|ÖK, ÜK, KÖ,
|/ øk /
, / yk / ,
|NCH||/ ntʃ /|
|-NY||/ ɲ /|
|-Lt||/ lt /
, / ld /
|-NT||/ nt /
, / nd /
|word division symbol||none|
The old turkish was added to the Unicode standard in October 2009, with the publication of version 5.2, with the block U + 10C00 – U + 10C4F being assigned, which includes national and historical variants and consists of 73 characters. [ 8 ]