Objective law When, under certain conditions to which a system is subjected, there is a field of possibilities of change that necessarily takes place.
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- 1 Classical definition of Law
- 2 Current conception of objective law
- 3 Behavior of systems in the universe
- 1 Examples
- 4 Conclusions
- 5 Sources
Classical definition of Law
The word “law” is usually associated with rules or regulations that must be compulsorily met, if certain conditions exist, in the legal field those rules are dictated by the state legislative bodies, that is, by individuals or groups of people who have responsibility and the commission to propose and approve the laws that must be complied with by all the citizens of a country.
Also the term “law” is used to characterize the way in which objects or systems of nature, society or thought change, independently of the opinion, will or desire of people, when certain conditions or premises are given. It is this type of law that we call objective Law .
This last type of “law” differs substantially from the first in the fact that they are not dictated or promulgated according to the criteria and opinions of any person or group of them, but correspond to regularities present in the way objects or systems change when certain conditions are present and are subject to certain influences.
This type of “law” is very frequently found as part of scientific theories, specifically in the so-called natural sciences such as Physics , Chemistry , Biology , etc., The Law of Universal Gravitation , formulated by Newton , the Periodic Law of chemical elements raised by Mendeleev and the Laws of genetics of Mendel are typical examples.
In the classic definitions of “law” emphasis is made on the stable, necessary, internal and repeated relationships between phenomena, in such a way that it is conceived that if you have a system subject to certain conditions, there is only one possibility of change that necessarily is done. Knowledge of the law allows us to foresee with certainty the course of the process.
A simple example of the above is given in Classical Mechanics where it is established that given the initial conditions of a particle (position and speed) and knowing the laws of motion its position and speed can be predicted with unlimited accuracy at any future time.
Current conception of objective law
From the very beginning of the discovery of the laws, it was noted that they were not fulfilled in practice with infinite precision, but that there were always certain “deviations” in the way systems really changed in relation to the way they “should” change as “laws” predicted. The mismatch was long thought to be due solely to measurement errors caused by the limitations of “observers” and the imperfections of the instruments used in measurements, but it was assumed that observers and perfect instruments were achieved the practical results would correspond exactly to what is predicted by the “laws”.
At the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century it was discovered that nature was not governed by “laws” as exact as previously thought and that it was not possible to predict with infinite degree of accuracy the behavior of an object or system even with observers and perfect instruments. The formulation of Werner Karl Heisenberg’s Principle of Uncertainty marked a turning point in the style of thought giving a decisive impulse to the point of view that confers an important role on chance and probability, setting limits to deterministic thinking, strengthening the conviction of intrinsically probabilistic nature of phenomena.
With the impetuous development of science and technology, the limitations of determinism in explaining and predicting the behavior of reality are increasingly revealed, and the probabilistic (stochastic) approach in interpreting phenomena gains more force, establishing more and more the point of complexity view.
In such a way that the definition of “law” must be modified in such a way that it contains deterministic elements and probabilistic elements keeping a certain harmony, being able to argue that: under certain conditions to which a system is subject there is a field of possibilities of change that is necessarily carried out . For each element of the field there is a certain probability of occurrence which is done casually.
Behavior of systems in the universe
The experience of humanity shows that there is no absolute anarchy in the behavior of the different systems in the universe and that in a certain way the changes that occur obey certain laws, if it were not so, technological development and predictions would simply be impossible. astronomical, of which we are witnesses, because the machines are designed and built on the basis that a certain system will behave in compliance with certain laws, therefore it is trusted that once the system (machine) is formed every time If the specific conditions are repeated, this will exhibit the same behavior. If this were not the case, one could not be sure that, by powering a computer, it would work as expected.
The following example can help clarify the above. As it is assumed, the movement of the projectiles is governed by the Laws of Classical Dynamics in such a way that if they are known: the initial speed, the launch angle, as well as certain properties of the projectile itself, of the medium in which it moves and From the terrain where it operates, the region of the earth’s surface where it will fall can be predicted with certainty, but the same cannot be done with the exact point where it will impact. From the moment of the shot until its arrival at the target, the projectile will be subjected to a series of casual influences that make it impossible to accurately predict the point where it will make the impact.
If several shots are made, keeping the same initial conditions, it will be observed that the respective impacts will all be within a certain predictable region, but in general, at different points in that region. So there are deterministic elements that allow to predict with certainty the area where the projectile will hit and random elements that do not allow predicting the exact point of impact.
This same type of behavior influences the need for constant monitoring of the position and speed of spacecraft and the systematic correction of their orbits during their useful period.
In general, the behavior of objects, phenomena and processes are subject to “laws”, these laws are not strictly deterministic but rather the presence of two important aspects is observed, one that determines the need for changes to occur within a certain spectrum of possibilities and another non-deterministic or random one that causes the possibility that is realized, within the given spectrum, to be accidental.