Non-ionizing radiation. It is all energy in the form of waves that propagate through space.
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- 1 Non-ionizing radiation
- 2 Radiation
- 3 Non-ionizing radiation
- 4 Origin of non-ionizing radiation
- 5 Biological effects
- 6 Sources
In the particular case of non-ionizing radiation due to its frequency but extremely intense (only intense lasers ), the phenomenon of non-linear ionization appears, therefore, it is also ionizing.
Thermal neutron emission corresponds to a type of non-ionizing radiation that is extremely harmful to living beings. An efficient shield is any source that has hydrogen, such as water or plastics, although the best shield of all for this type of neutron, as well as in the emission of slow [neutrons], are: natural cadmium (Cd) , by reactive capture, and Boron (B), by transmutation reactions. For this type of radiation, materials such as lead, steel, etc. they are absolutely transparent.
It is the process of transmitting waves or particles through space or some medium. Waves and particles have many common characteristics, radiation usually occurs predominantly in one of two ways.
Mechanical radiation corresponds to waves that are only transmitted through matter, such as sound waves.
Electromagnetic radiation is independent of matter for its propagation, however, the speed, intensity and direction of its energy flow are influenced by the presence of matter. Electromagnetic Radiation is divided into two main types according to the type of changes they cause on the atoms in which it acts:
- Non-ionizing radiation
- Ionizing radiation
They are those that are not capable of producing ions by interacting with the atoms of a material. They can be classified into two large groups:
- Electromagnetic fields
- Optical radiation
Within electromagnetic fields , those generated by electric current lines or by static electric fields can be distinguished . Other examples are radio frequency waves , used by radio stations, and microwaves used in household appliances and in the area of telecommunications .
Among the optical radiation can be mentioned lasers and solar radiation such as the infrared , visible light and ultraviolet radiation . These radiations can cause heat and certain photochemical effects by acting on the human body. We will focus on the ultraviolet radiation that the earth has reached in recent years due to various factors, in values that seriously harm our health and survival.
Origin of non-ionizing radiation
Electromagnetic fields are natural phenomena ; the galaxies , the sun ‘s, stars emit radiation of low density, and the atmosphere electric charges are generated magnetic fields that are subjected permanently and become much more intense, for example, during thunderstorms.
But these natural electric and magnetic fields have been joined in the last century by a large number of artificial fields, created by industrial machinery, power lines, household appliances, etc. that expose us to additional radiation on a daily basis. Although, with some exceptions, all this artificial radiation is much weaker than natural electromagnetic fields, in many professions in the electronic, railway and telecommunications sectors, exposure is continued.
High-frequency radiation and microwaves cause [molecular vibrations], producing heat — hence their domestic and industrial use — thereby causing burns from a given amount of absorbed radiation. Radiation of extremely low frequencies was considered harmless.
However, it has been shown that it can produce electrical changes in the membrane of all the cells of the body, altering the cellular flows of some ions, especially calcium, which could have important biological effects. Thus, multiple studies have been published in the last two decades, citing a possible relationship of low-energy electromagnetic fields with the origin of certain cancers, especially leukemias.
Attempts have also been made to relate to alterations in the reproductive, neurological, and [cardiovascular] apparatus, and fetal malformations.