Neoplasticism . Artistic trend born in Europe in the second decade of the twentieth century that disseminates an artistic praxis based on the idea of stripping art of any accessory element to arrive at the essence of an objective and therefore universal plastic language.
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- 1 Background
- 2 Foundation
- 3 Features
- 4 Representatives
- 5 Sources
The origins of this movement can be redirected to Piet Mondrian , who at the beginning of the 20th century began to create from figurative representations, executed within the naturalistic tone, arrived at by progressive stylizations to transform the figures into geometric organizations; his famous painting based on plus [+] and minus [-] signs, the 1915 composition, came off a symmetrically composed tree.; from the image of an animal he obtained a series of rectangles corresponding to the abstractions of all his structures; Once at this point, its evolution began as a patient and endless elaboration of fabrics based on the interaction of orthogonal systems, animated by color, which, in its last period, it reduced to the primary nuances.
Mondrian’s theories have their origin in the cubist works of Georges Braque and Pablo Picasso . In this sense it is worth remembering that artists claim the neoplastic process of progressive abstraction under which the forms would be reduced to lines horizontal and vertical lines; and the colors black, white, gray and the three primaries. In essence, neoplasticism is nourished by a mystical elementalism, which was rationalized by Mondrian himself in the article entitled “The new plastic expression [Cahiers d’Art, 1926], by saying:
“A composition [prevails] based exclusively on the balance of pure relationships, arising from pure intuition through the union of heightened sensitivity and superior intelligence.”
Neoplasticism transfers to architecture the spatial configuration and severe simplicity of elemental proportions, just as it had been conceived by Mondrian in his painting. This movement reduces all composition to lines and planes, exhausting to the extreme the possibilities of direction of the areas and the resource of the orthogonal. In this way all composition, although it is not reduced to the use of planes, lines and right angles, if it turns them into protagonists.
Another essential feature of this movement is the chromatic reduction in the compositions, which are worked on the basis of the primary colors [red, yellow and blue] and the non-colors [black, gray and white]. The aesthetics of neoplasticism rests on the idea of an autonomous and collectively valid order, which brings the clear vision of “the normalized, the constructive and the functional”; thus excluding plastic constructions from all arbitrariness and lack of planning.
- Artistic movement whose aesthetics invade the fine arts: painting, sculpture and architecture
- Preference for primary colors plus white, black and gray
- Preference for using the straight line, the planes and the right angle
- Art that rests its visuality on the modulated and proportionate
- Reducing shapes to simple geometry
- They see beauty in the simplicity of geometric shapes
- Search for perfection and plastic harmony
- Objective and consequently universal plastic language
- Predominance of the concepts of structure and composition.