Movement(Physics)

Movement . Physical phenomenon that is defined as any change in position that bodies experience in space, with respect to time and a reference point, varying the distance of said body with respect to that reference point or system, describing a trajectory.

Summary

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  • 1 Definition
  • 2 Classification
    • 1 According to the trajectory of the point
    • 2 According to the trajectory of the solid
    • 3 According to the direction of movement
    • 4 According to speed
  • 3 Elements of movement
  • 4 Movement, concepts, disciplines
    • 1 Art
    • 2 Biology
    • 3 Demography
    • 4 Economy
    • 5 Philosophy
    • 6 Physics
    • 7 War
    • 8 History
    • 9 Games
    • 10 Medicine
    • 11 Music
    • 12 Journalism
    • 13 Religion
    • 14 Sociology and political science
    • 15 Technology
  • 5 Movement as a philosophical category
  • 6 Laws of movement
    • 1 Newton’s Laws
      • 1.1 Newton’s First Law or Law of Inertia
      • 1.2 Newton’s Second Law or Law of Force
      • 1.3 Newton’s Third Law or Law of Action and Reaction
    • 7 Sources

Definition

Insect in motion

Everything moves, a car that travels towards the coast ; a leaf that, whipped by the wind , falls from a tree ; a ball that is kicked by a footballer; an athlete who runs after a goal; an electron vibrating in its environment; the Earth around the Sun , which is why movement is defined as a change in position of a body with respect to another body (where an observer is located), during a space of time.

To produce movement, an intensity of interaction or energy exchange that exceeds a certain threshold is necessary.

The part of physics that is in charge of the study of movement is Kinematics .

Classification

Depending on the movement of a point or a solid, different types of movement can be distinguished:

According to the trajectory of the point

Dance another manifestation of movement

  • Rectilinear motion: The path that the point describes is a straight line .
  • Curvilinear motion: The point describes a curve changing its direction as it moves. Particular cases of curvilinear motion are circular motion describing a circle around a fixed point, and elliptical and parabolic trajectories.

According to the trajectory of the solid

  • Translation: All points in the solid describe parallel paths, not necessarily straight.
  • Rotation: All points in the solid describe concentric circular paths.

According to the direction of movement

If the direction of movement changes, the described movement is called alternative if it is on a rectilinear or pendular path if it is on a circular path (an arc of circumference).

According to speed

  • Uniform movement: The speedof movement is constant.
  • Uniformly varied movement: The acceleration is constant (if negative delayed, if positive accelerated) as is the case of bodies in free fall under the acceleration of gravity.

Elements of movement

Fencing in motion

  • The trajectory: It is the line that describes a body in motion. According to its trajectory, the movements can be: Rectilinear, Curvilinear, Elliptical, Parabolic
  • The distance: It is the length between the origin of the movement and the final position.
  • Speed: It is the distance traveled in the unit of time.
  • Time: How long the movement takes.

Movement, concepts, disciplines

The term movement can refer to various concepts depending on the discipline.

Art

In other forms of Art , it is understood as a representation of movement. Various arts have movement as a form of expression:

  • the dance
  • mimicry
  • the film(etymological meaning graphical representation of the movement)
  • the sculpturekinetic
  • Artistic movement is also understood as artistic style.

biology

Dancer in motion

  • The Motility (ability to move) of a cell, parts of cells, etc.

Demography

In Demographics , population movements: changes in population , which can be:

  • natural movements: birthand mortality
  • migratory movements: emigrationand immigration

Economy

In Economics and accounting :

  • capital movements (investments and divestments),
  • bank movements (transfers, deposits, refunds),
  • movement as an organization.

Philosophy

Most important attribute, mode of existence of matter . The movement includes in itself all the processes that occur in nature and in society . In its broadest aspect, it is change in general, it is all interaction of material objects. In the world there is no matter without movement, just as there can be no movement without matter.

Physical

Displacement athlete

In Physics it can talk about a:

  • Movement of bodies or systems.
  • Perpetual motion.

War

In war terminology:

  • Movement is the displacement of an army or a military unit, which can be:
  • tactical movement (tactic),
  • strategic movement (military strategy);
  • There is also the concept of mobilization.

History

In Anthropology :

  • cultural movement.

Games

Ball in motion

  • In Chess, movement is each of the moves (the same denomination is used in other board games).
  • In network games, prediction of movement.

Medicine

In Medicine it refers to:

  • heart movements (atrial systole, ventricular systole, and diastole)
  • peristaltic movements
  • rapid eye movement (in English Rapid Eye Movement, REM);
  • voluntary movement, involuntary movement, reflex act, spasm, tic, etc.

Music

  • In Music, movement, it is a part of a larger composition or musical form.
  • Musical movement is also understood as musical style.
  • In urban music and culture, musical movement (punk movement, hip hop movement, grunge movement).

Journalism

Earth movement

In Journalism it refers to:

  • Media movement.

Religion

In Religion :

  • religious movement

Sociology and political science

  • In Sociology, social movements.
  • Cooperative movement.
  • In political science, political movements;
  • Movement, in Spainbetween 1936 and 1975 , was applied almost exclusively, par excellence, to the Franco National Movement.
  • National liberation movement

Technology

In technology it can talk about a:

  • Technocratic movement.
  • In video encoding, motion compensation is a technique to increase compression.

Movement as a philosophical category

Most important attribute, mode of existence of matter. The movement includes in itself all the processes that occur in nature and in society. In its broadest aspect, it is change in general, it is all interaction of material objects. In the world there is no matter without movement, just as there can be no movement without matter.

The movement of matter is absolute, while all rest is relative and constitutes one of the moments of movement. A body in a state of rest with respect to the Earth , moves together with it around the Sun, and together with the Sun, around the center of the Galaxy. Since the world is infinite, every body participates in the infinite multiplicity of forms of movement. The qualitative persistence of bodies and the stability of their qualities also constitute a manifestation of relative rest. But such persistence is conditioned by a special type of interaction of the body’s microparticles; it appears, therefore, as a result of the movement of such microparticles. Thus it turns out that motion determines the properties, structural organization, and character of the existence of matter. The movement of matter is diverse in its manifestations and exists in different forms.

In the process of matter development, qualitatively new and more complex forms of movement appear. But even mechanical displacement is not absolutely simple. When a body moves, it is constantly in interaction with other bodies through the electromagnetic and gravitational fields and, at the same time, it is transformed. Thus, the theory of relativitynotes that increasing the speed of movement increases the mass of the bodies, decreases the length in the direction of movement, accelerates the rate of processes in the bodies. If the speeds approach the speed of light, electrons and other particles can intensively radiate quanta of the electromagnetic field in the direction of movement (it is the so-called “luminescent” electron). All movement includes in itself an interaction of different forms of movement and their reciprocal transformations. It is also inexhaustible, as inexhaustible is the matter itself. The movement of it constitutes a process of interaction of opposites. Thus, mechanical movement appears as a unit of the discontinuity and continuity of space and time; electromagnetic, nuclear and gravitational movement is based on the unity of contrary processes consisting of the absorption and irradiation, by the microparticles, of quanta of the electromagnetic, nuclear and gravitational fields; chemical motion encompasses the association and dissociation of atoms; life processes are based on the unity between the assimilation and the dissimilation of substances, between the excitation and the inhibition of cells, etc.

The infinite self-movement of matter in the cosmosit also appears as a result of the unity of the opposite processes of dispersion of matter and energy (during the course of the evolution of the stars), and of their inverse concentration that ultimately leads to the emergence of stars, galaxies and other forms Of the mattery. If the movement of a material system is subordinated to a single law and encompasses the total change of the system, it is presented as a process of system development. When development is ascending, the links, structure and forms of movement of material objects become more complex, a progressive transformation occurs from the lower to the higher. The downward development expresses, on the contrary, the degradation and decomposition of the system, the simplification of its forms of movement.

Movement constitutes a more general concept than that of development, since it includes in itself all changes, even external and casual, that do not correspond to the internal law that presides over the development of the system.

Laws of movement

Newton’s Laws

The Laws of Newton , also known as the laws of motion Newton are three principles from which most of the problems are explained by the dynamics , particularly those relating to the movement of bodies. They revolutionized the basic concepts of physics and the movement of bodies in the universe .

The studies that he carried out can be defined with the following three laws that he postulated:

Newton’s First Law or Law of Inertia

The first law of motion refutes the Aristotelian idea that a body can only keep moving if a force is applied to it. Newton states that:

Every body remains in its initial state of rest or rectilinear uniform movement unless an unbalanced external force is exerted on it.

Being the first of Newton’s three laws usually leads to a very common error, attributing the discovery of this property to Newton himself when, in fact, Galileo Galilei was the first to observe, study and formalize this property in the 16th century and later , already in the 17th century , it was taken by Newton.

This law postulates, therefore, that a body cannot change its initial state by itself, either at rest or in uniform rectilinear motion, unless a force or a series of forces is applied whose result is not null on it. Newton takes into account, thus, that moving bodies are constantly subjected to friction or friction forces, which slows them down progressively, something new compared to previous conceptions that understood that the movement or arrest of a body was due exclusively whether a force was exerted on them, but never understanding friction as it is.

Consequently, a body with uniform rectilinear motion implies that there is no net external force or, in other words, a moving object does not stop naturally if a force is not applied to it. In the case of bodies at rest, it is understood that their speed is zero, so if it changes it is because a net force has been exerted on that body.

Newton’s Second Law or Law of Force

Newton’s second law of motion says:

The change in motion is proportional to the printed driving force and occurs along the straight line along which that force is printed.

This law explains what happens if a net force acts on a body in motion (whose mass does not have to be constant): the force will modify the state of motion, changing the speed in module or direction. Specifically, the changes experienced in the amount of movement of a body are proportional to the driving force and develop in its direction; that is, forces are causes that cause accelerations in the bodies.

Consequently, there is a relationship between cause and effect, that is, force and acceleration are related. Said synthetically, force is simply defined as a function of the moment in which it is applied to an object, so that two forces will be equal if they cause the same rate of change at the moment of the object.

Newton’s Third Law or Law of Action and Reaction

Newton’s Third Law states:

With every action an equal and opposite reaction always occurs: that is, the mutual actions of two bodies are always equal and directed in the opposite direction.

The third law is completely original to Newton (since the first two had already been proposed in other ways by Galileo, Hooke and Huygens) and makes the laws of mechanics a logical and complete set. He explains that for every force acting on a body, it performs a force of equal intensity and direction, but in the opposite direction on the body that produced it. In other words, the forces, located on the same line, always appear in pairs of equal magnitude and opposite in direction.

It is important to note that this principle of action and reaction relates two forces that are not applied to the same body, producing different accelerations, depending on their masses. Otherwise, each of these forces obeys the second law separately. Together with the previous laws, it allows us to state the principles of conservation of linear momentum and angular momentum.

 

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