Motivation is a psychic process that gives purpose and direction to human behavior. It is an internal driving force, an incentive that leads each person to meet unmet needs. Motivation achieves personal and organizational goals. It is the will to achieve something. And these are not just “noble” goals. One also needs motivation for the tasks of everyday life. How does motivation affect working life? What are the good and bad ways of motivation?
Motivation, ie the desire to do something , is influenced by various incentives . These can be either internal (self-motivating) or external (eg by the employer or partner). In practice, two types of motivation can be distinguished , depending on their nature.
· Positive motivation
As the name suggests, it is motivation through something positive . Something that makes the person happy and happy. It is based on a reward for better performance . The reward in this case may be a material form , a form of moral appreciation or a form of self-realization .
· Negative motivation
Negative motivation is connected with the word fear . The reaction to this fear forces one to “do something.” And both on the very level of existence (survival) and on the general level , such as the fear of losing anything that pleases a person.
Theory of motivation
There is a fairly wide range of motivation theories . They investigate the motivation process and explain why people behave in a certain way, why they make some effort in a particular direction. However, not every motivation theory is applicable to all persons. Just as every person is individual, there is a different motivating factor for everyone . And it is necessary to count on this in practice.
The most famous motivation theories include:
- Maslow’s hierarchical needs theory,
- Herzberg’s two-factor theory,
- Vroom’s Expectation Theory,
- Adams’s Theory of Justice,
- Skinner’s theory of positive empowerment,
- McClelland’s theory of acquired needs.
Motivation in practice – employment
The key to successful employee motivation is to identify which of a number of motivational factors affect them most strongly in a given situation and to use that factor or factors in their motivation. And it is not desirable to motivate everyone not only as an individual but also as an entire work team . Motivation is an uninterrupted , planned process – it is not possible to motivate employees once a year during interviews and believe that motivation will last 364 days.
Similarly, it is not appropriate for employees to be motivated by someone who cannot motivate themselves. In addition, a certain amount of empathy , understanding , is needed . A team leader who does not listen to the needs of his subordinates can never sufficiently motivate them to perform better .
Motivation and encouragement is also indispensable in brainstorming , where many new ideas and ideas are expected to be generated. These can then lead to finding a solution to a problem or situation.
As already mentioned, it is possible to motivate not only others but also oneself . One has to have his or her own motivation for all activities that move him somewhere further – for example, to start a business , start a company , terminate employment , etc.
How to motivate?
There are really many tools for motivation . In the case of sensitive application, good results are achieved very soon. For example, you can motivate by:
- written or oral praise, acknowledgment – timing is important, recognition a few weeks after a job is not very effective anymore,
- listening to the views of employees and opening a possible discussion,
- feedback on employee performance, quality of work and expertise,
- informing about the results, visions, goals of the company, creating a sense of belonging between employees and the company,
- support in personal responsibility for the work of employees,
- inquiring about their ideas to improve processes in the company, supporting their initiative
- teambuilding events , celebrations, informal meetings , etc.
Proper employee motivation is crucial to achieving maximum performance.
Employee motivation is usually in charge of companies directly by the company management and individual managers are responsible for the right motivation of their subordinates . The HR department , the marketing department, or the public relations department often lend a helping hand .
How not to motivate?
Choosing the wrong tools of motivation will not only increase the performance of the workers , but on the contrary may reduce it – it is called demotivation . Inappropriate is:
- keep important facts from employees ,
- say something else and do something else ,
- change goals so that it is necessary to constantly remodel work already done,
- unfairly evaluated .
- to criticize , without highlighting the positive aspects of employees,
- tolerate poor performance or reward performance
- create unnecessary rules and restrictions , overwhelming employees with bureaucracy at the expense of the work itself,
- exhibit persistent pessimism , etc.
There is also a difference between motivation and manipulation . An improperly thinking manager wants employees to perform a task because he is required to do so (= manipulation). On the other hand, a capable manager is one who achieves a state where the task is to be performed by employees of their own will (= motivation).