Morphine Drug is always pain medication.The outstanding and distinctive characteristic of dependence on opium and morphine-like agents is the psychological and physical dependence. Tolerance can be initiated by the repeated administration of small doses, and increase in intensity in direct relation to an increase in the dosage.
This characteristic implies that dependence on drugs of this generic type may be created within the dosage range generally used for medical purposes, and that the mechanism may be set in motion by the first dose administered.
The regular use of opiate-type drugs results in the development of strong physical dependence, and characteristic withdrawal symptoms occur when the narcotic is stopped.
With morphine, the abstinence syndrome appears within a few hours of the last dose, reaches a peak within 24 to 48 hours, and subsides spontaneously.The most severe symptoms usually disappear within 10 days, although a few persist for a much longer period.The time of onset, peak intensity and duration of adverse symptoms vary with the degree of dependence on the drug and with the characteristics of the specific agent involved.
The unique feature of the morphine abstinence syndrome is that it represents changes in all major areas of nervous activity, including alteration in behavior, excitation of the nervous system and depressive effects.
Signs and symptoms
The following general phenomena may occur:
- generalized body aches
- watery eyes
- runny nose
- dilated pupils
- hot flushes
- nausea and vomiting
- elevation of body temperature
- high respiratory rate
- raised blood pressure
- abdominal cramps
- dehydration and loss of appetite
- loss of body weight
A relationship between dose, pharmacological properties and intensity of physical dependence has been mentioned. Taking repeated doses of the drag while the previous doses are still being felt also hastens development of physical dependence.
The time from beginning to take the drag to the appearance of demonstrable physical dependence also varies with the agent.With morphine, this interval (under clinical conditions of administration) is two or three weeks; it is shorter for ketobemidone, probably longer for phenazocine, and definitely longer for co-denied especially when this is administered by mouth.
Finally,with drug dependence of the morphine type, the harm to individuals is the main, indirect, arising from their preoccupation with drug-taking: personal neglect, malnutrition and infection. For society, too, the harm resulting from dependence is chiefly related! to the preoccupation of the individual with drug-taking; disruption of personal relationships, economic loss and crimes against property are frequent sequences.
Characteristics Of Opiates ( Morphine)
- A strong psychological dependence that manifests itself as an overpowering drive or compulsion to continue taking the drug for pleasure or to avoid physical/mental discomfort, sume to obtain it by almost any means.
- An early development of physical dependence that increases in intensity. paralleling the increase in dosage: this requires continued administration of the same drug, or of an allied one, to maintain a semblance of equilibrium and to prevent the appearance of the symptoms and signs of withdrawal.
- Both the withdrawal of the drug and the administration of a specific antagonist precipitated definite, characteristic and self-limiting withdrawal symptoms.
- The development of tolerance that requires an increase in dosage to produce the effects obtained initially