Modern Biology

The Modren Biology  is based on understanding how biomolecules and their interactions can explain the “life” of cells, not only as isolated entities, but as members of multicellular organisms.


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  • 1 Story
    • 1 Invention of the microscope
  • 2 Theories that contribute to Modern Biology
    • 1 Outstanding researchers
  • 3 Conclusion
  • 4 Sources


This stage of Biology begins in the mid- seventeenth century and runs until shortly before 1920 . One of the most important inventions of this time is, without a doubt, the microscope , since with its help biological structures began to be observed that at first sight it was not possible to do.

Invention of the microscope

The story does not clearly state who invented the microscope; some historians think that Giovanni Farber invented it in the year 1550 ; others think that the paternity of this invention corresponds to Zaccharias Jannsen who invented it around the year 1590 . Among the first microscopists we can mention the following:

  • Marcello Malpighi (1628 – 1694)
  • Jan Swammerdam (1637 – 1680)
  • Anton van Leeuwenhoek (1632 – 1723)

Theories that contribute to Modern Biology

Modern Biology is based on several unifying themes, such as:

  • The Cell Theory
  • Darwin and Wallace’s Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection
  • Mendel’s Laws
  • The Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance
  • Crick’s Central Dogma on the flow of information

Featured researchers

Within this time, some researchers stand out who established the importance of the cell in the structure of organisms , among them we have the following:

  • Robert Hooke (1635 – 1703): This researcher was the first to use the word “cell”.
  • Marie Francois Bichat (1771 – 1802): This doctor established that the organs were made up of subunits which he called tissues ; It also established that within the tissues there was a lower level of organization, later it is discovered that this lower level was made up of cells.
  • René Dutrochet
  • Robert Brown: In 1831 he established that all cell types have nuclei .
  • Theodor Schwann and Mathias Schleiden: In 1838, these two German biologists established that the cell was the anatomical and structural unit of living beings . These are two of the postulates of Cell Theory.
  • Rudolf Virchow: In 1858 he proposed the third postulate of the Cell Theory by pointing out that the cell is the unit of origin.

Other researchers of the time, stood out when explaining the evolutionary history of species , the origin of life and the mechanisms of inheritance ; among them:

  • Charles Darwin (1809 – 1882)
  • Luis Pasteur (1822 – 1895)
  • Gregor Johann Mendel (1822 – 1884)


As a conclusion to this period of about 300 years, we can highlight the following:

  • It is a stage characterized by an experimental working method and by the attempt to relate cellular structures to their function.
  • New fields of Biology arise such as Microbiology , Cytology , Genetics and Evolution among others.


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