Every human being is related to everyone else and everyone becomes a community of fraternity in his honorable and pleasant servitude to the most compassionate Lord in the Universe (Allah). In a heavenly atmosphere, the Islamic confession of the oneness of God remains dominant and central and necessarily implies the concept of the oneness of humanity and the brotherhood of humanity.
Islam does not seek to restrict human rights or privileges to Muslims only . Islam has established some universal fundamental rights for humanity as a whole, which must be observed and respected in all circumstances, whether that person is resident within the territory of Muslim countries or outside, be at peace with them or war. The Qur’an states very clearly:
“O you who believe! Be constant in serving Allah, being witnesses with equanimity. And that hatred towards a people does not lead you not to be just. Be righteous: this is closer to godliness. ” [Holy Quran 5: 8]
In any case, human blood is sacred and cannot be spilled without justification. And if someone violates this sanctity of human blood by killing an unjustified soul, the Qur’an equates it to the killing of all mankind.
“… Whoever kills a person, without having killed another person or sown corruption in the land…” [Holy Quran 5:32]
It is not allowed to oppress women, children, the elderly, the sick or the injured. The honor and chastity of women must be respected in all circumstances. The hungry person must be fed, the naked dressed and the wounded or sick treated medically, regardless of whether they belong to the Islamic community or whether they belong to their enemies.
When we talk about human rights in Islam, we really mean that those rights were granted by God ( Allah ); they were not granted by any king or legislative assembly. And since human rights in Islam have been conferred by God, no one on earth has the right or authority to make any amendments or changes to the rights given by Him. No one has the right to revoke or withdraw them. Nor are these basic human rights that are conferred on paper for shows and exhibitions and denied in real life when the show ends. Nor are they like philosophical concepts that have no sanctions behind them.
Human Rights in Islam
The Safety of Life and Property
In the speech that the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) delivered on the occasion of Farewell Hajj, he said:
Their lives and properties are forbidden to each other until you meet your Lord on the day of resurrection.
The said Prophet also spoke about the dhimmis (non-Muslim citizens of the Muslim state):
“WHOEVER KILLS A MAN UNDER A COVENANT (IE DHIMMI) DOESN’T EVEN SMELL THE FRAGRANCE OF PARADISE.”
The Protection of Honor
The Holy Quran declares in [49: 11-12]:
O you who believe!
– Let one group not mock another group
– do not be defamed,
– insult yourselves, with derogatory epithets.
– And don’t speak ill of each other,
Holiness and security of privacy
The Holy Qur’an established the injunctions:
“Do not spy on each other” [Holy Quran 49:12]
“Do not enter houses other than yours, until you ask permission and greet its inhabitants.” [Holy Quran 24:27]
The Security of Personal Freedom
Islam has established the principle that no citizen can be arrested unless his guilt has been proven in an open court. Arresting a man solely on suspicion and throwing him into prison without due process and without providing him with a reasonable opportunity to present his defense is not allowed in Islam.
Freedom of expression
Islam grants the right to freedom of thought and expression to all citizens of Islamic countries, with the proviso that it be used for the propagation of virtue and truth and not to spread evil and wickedness. The Islamic concept of freedom is far superior to the concept prevalent in the West. Under no circumstances would Islam allow the spread of evil and evil. Nor does it give anyone the right to use abusive or offensive language in the name of criticism. It was the practice of Muslims to ask the Prophet whether a divine injunction had been revealed to him on any matter. If he said he had received no divine injunction, Muslims freely expressed their views on the matter.
Freedom of Association
Islam also gave people the right to freedom of association and the formation of parties or organizations. This right is also subject to certain general rules.
Freedom of conscience and conviction
Islam established the injunction:
“THERE IS NO COMPULSION IN RELIGION!” [HOLY QURAN 2: 256]
On the contrary, totalitarian societies totally deprive individuals of their freedom. In fact, this undue exaltation of the authority of the state, curiously, postulates a kind of servitude, of slavery on the part of man. At the same time, slavery meant total control over man – this type of slavery has now been legally abolished, but in its place, totalitarian societies impose a similar type of control over individuals.
Protection of Religious Feelings
Along with freedom of belief and freedom of conscience, Islam has given the individual the right that their religious feelings will receive due respect and nothing will be said or done that would invade their right.
Protection against Arbitrary Prison
Islam also recognizes the right of individuals not to be arrested or imprisoned for the crimes of others. The Quran clearly states:
“And no sinful soul bears the sin of another.” [Holy Quran 35:18]
The right to basic life needs
Islam recognized the right of people in need to receive help and assistance:
“And, in their wealth, there was a right for the beggar and the destitute.” [Holy Quran 51:19]
Equality under the law
Islam grants its citizens the right to absolute and complete equality in the eyes of the law.
Government Accountability by Law
A woman belonging to a tall and noble family was arrested for theft. The case was brought to the Prophet ﷺ and it was recommended that she be spared punishment for theft. The Prophet ﷺ replied:
The nations that lived before you were destroyed by God because they punished the common man for his offenses and left his dignitaries unpunished for his crimes. I swear to Him that you hold my life in His hands that, even if Muhammad’s daughter, Fatima, had committed this crime, I would have amputated her hand.
The Right to Participate in State Affairs
“And for those who attend their Lord, and fulfill the prayer, and whose conduct is consultation, among them.” [Holy Quran 42:38]
The Shura or the legislative assembly has no other meaning than this: the executive head of the government and the members of the assembly must be elected by free and independent choice of the people.
In short, Islam tries to achieve the human rights mentioned above and many others, not only by providing certain legal safeguards, but mainly by inviting humanity to transcend the lowest level of animal life in order to go beyond the mere ties promoted by blood kinship, racial superiority, linguistic arrogance and economic privileges. Invites humanity to go to a plane of existence where, through its inner excellence, man can realize the ideal of the Brotherhood of man.