Mesenteric ischemia. It is a condition that becomes inflamed and injures the small intestine due to insufficient blood supply . It occurs when there is a narrowing or blockage of one or more of the three major arteries supplying both the large intestine and the small intestine, these are called the mesenteric arteries.
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- 1 Symptoms
- 2 Causes
- 1 Acute mesenteric ischemia
- 2 Chronic mesenteric ischemia
- 3 Treatment
- 4 Source
A symptom of mesenteric ischemia can be severe abdominal pain that can come on suddenly. The pain can be followed by diarrhea . Some people with this condition may have blood in the stool , vomiting , fever, and bloating of the abdomen . You may also have a loss of appetite. In general, eating can cause many of these symptoms to occur , which can lead to a lack of interest in food.
Mesenteric ischemia can appear suddenly (acute) or over time (chronic). It may also be due to a blockage in a vein .
Acute mesenteric ischemia
The affected acute mesenteric ischemia occurs suddenly and can be caused by:
- Blood clot that blocks one of the arteries in the small intestine. A blood clotis the most common cause of acute mesenteric ischemia, and may be the result of congestive heart failure , irregular heart rhythm ( arrhythmia ), or a heart attack .
- Intestinal obstructionin the artery that slows or stops blood flow, often as a result of the accumulation of fatty deposits along the wall of an artery ( atherosclerosis ).
- Low blood pressure due to shock, heart failure, certain medications, or chronic kidney failure . The hypotension may reduce blood flow to the small intestine . This case is more common in people with other serious illnesses or some degree of atherosclerosis . This type of acute mesenteric ischemia is sometimes called non-occlusive ischemia.
Chronic mesenteric ischemia
Chronic mesenteric ischemia, also known as intestinal angina, occurs as a result of the gradual accumulation of fatty deposits on the wall of an artery (atherosclerosis). Chronic mesenteric ischemia can progress to acute mesenteric ischemia, especially if a blood clot forms inside an artery .
Acute ischemia of the mesenteric arteries constitutes a medical emergency. Treatment may include:
- Medicines to dissolve clots and dilate the mesenteric arteries (vasodilators) if the problem is caused by a blood clot.
- Surgery to treat mesenteric ischemia.
- The surgeryfor prolonged ischemia of mesenteric arteries involves removing the blockage and reconnecting the arteries to the aorta. Another procedure is to create a shunt around the obstruction and it is usually done with a plastic tube graft.
- Introduction of a stent. This stent can be used as an alternative to surgery to enlarge the blockage of the mesenteric artery or to deliver medicationsdirectly to the affected area. This is a new technique and should only be performed by experienced doctors. The clinical outcome is generally better with surgery.