Mendel’s laws were developed by a geneticist scientist, considered the father of genetics: Gregor Mendel. Hence his name. This scientist carried out experiments that allowed elucidating fundamental elements of genetic inheritance, as with an example of Mendel’s law, which explains the descending traits that can be predicted through the characteristics of the parents of a species, from animals, plants and Even human beings.
This scientist was the one who coined some of the most well-known terms of genetics, such as the “dominant” and “recessive” terms, which are inheritance factors present in hereditary characteristics and traits in organisms, all this through Three Laws of Mendel .
The essay on Vegetable Hybrids that he conducted in 1866 was decisive, where the 3 Mendel Laws that were named before his last name were finally formulated. And they were composed of inter-species crosses and experiments that were taken to a statistical analysis. However, these studies were not taken into account until long after they were published, in 1900. Here is an introduction to Gregor Mendel’s Laws:
Mendel’s first law, also called: Law of the uniformity of the hybrids of the first generation, or simply Law of Uniformity. This law dictates that, when crossing two varieties of a purebred species, each of the first generation hybrids will have similar determined characters in their phenotype. This is because pure races have a dominant gene or a recessive gene. The dominant genotype will then be the one that determines the main characteristic or characteristics of the first generation of the crossing, but at the same time, they will also be phenotypically similar to each other, that is, between each individual of the first generation.
In the experiment carried out by Mendel to obtain the first of Mendel’s laws, he used a kind of peas that produced yellow seeds as the dominant gene and another that had a recessive gene that produced green seeds, therefore, the allele we will call “A “Gave the yellow color above the” a “allele that produced the green color. The product of the crossing were plants that produced yellow seeds. Keep reading here to learn more about Mendel’s Law .
Mendel’s Second Law
Mendel’s second law, also known as the Law of Segregation, Law of Equitable Separation, or even Law of Disjunction of Alleles. This dictates that for the reproduction of two individuals of a species to exist, the separation of the allele of each pair must first exist so that in this way the genetic information is transferred to the child. An allele is, the genetic variant that allows to determine a trait or character. There are then dominant and recessive alleles.
This is why the second of Mendel’s laws is called segregation or separation, since each parent provides an allele that separates from each other, to form an individual in a new generation. Keep reading here to learn more about Mendel’s Second Law . Mendel, in his experiment, obtained only yellow seeds in the first generation, but in the second generation, the alleles separated to form new green seeds in a smaller proportion than the yellow ones, but still existing. This would be the proportion:
Mendel’s Third Law
Mendel’s third law, also called the Independent Character Inheritance Law or the Independent Association Law. According to Mendel, there are inherited traits that are obtained independently, without relation to the phenotype, which does not affect the inheritance pattern of other traits. This law is fulfilled in genes that are not linked, that is, that they are found on different chromosomes or that they are in very separate areas of the same chromosome.
Mendel, to conclude the third of Mendel’s laws, made a crossing of pea plants that produced yellow and flat seeds, with peas that produced green and irregularly textured seeds. These were homozygous for the two characters of texture and color. It was concluded that the law of uniformity was present, because with the first generation it was possible to obtain yellow and smooth seeds.
However, when crossing this first generation to obtain a second generation, new types of seeds with diverse characters but related to the parental generation are observed, yellow and smooth, yellow and rough, green and smooth, and green and rough seeds were obtained. Keep reading here to learn more about Mendel’s Third Law .
Summary Mendel Laws
To end with the Summary Mendel Laws, it can be said that, Mendel’s first Law says that if two purebred parents are crossed with different traits, the first generation will have similarities to each other and will keep a father character with the dominant allele . The second law says that, genetic factors are separated from each of the parents in individual alleles that will come together to procreate a offspring with the characteristics of the first generation, but in the second generation, new genetic traits observed in the parents are manifested but united randomly in the offspring of the first generation. And Mendel’s third law says that, in addition there are features generated independently, through remote chromosomes that do not intervene with each other, and as in the second law,