The meaning of Ijtihad: Law, Functions, Terms, and Types

Definition of Ijtihad: Law, Function, Requirements, and Types –  What is meant by Ijtihad? On this occasion,  Around Knowledge, I will discuss what Ijtihad and other elements about it are. Let us refer to the discussion below in this article for more can understand it.

Table of Contents [ hide ]

  • 1Definition of Ijtihad: Law, Function, Terms, and Types
  • 2Proposals of Ijtihad Law
    • 1Al-Qur’an
    • 2Al-Hadits
    • 3Ijmak
  • 3Functions and Benefits of Ijtihad
  • 4Terms of Ijtihad (Mujtahid)
  • 5Types – Types of Ijtihad
    • 1Ijma ‘
    • 2Qiyas
    • 3Maslahah Mursalah
    • 4Sududz Dzariah
    • 5Istishab
    • 6Urf
    • 7Simple
    • 8Share this:
    • 9Related posts:

The meaning of Ijtihad: Law, Functions, Terms, and Types

The word ijtihad has its roots in the word al-juhd, which means al-thaqah (power, ability, strength) or from the word al-jahd which means al-masyaqqah (difficulty, difficulty). From that, ijtihad according to the language definition means “badzl al-wus’ wa al-majhud” (exertion of power and ability), or “the exertion of all power and ability in an activity of heavy and difficult activities”. (DR. Nasrun Rusli, Ijtihad Al-Shaukani’s Concept, p. 73)

The word “Ijtihad” comes from Arabic, namely “Ijtihada Yajtahidu Ijtihadan” which means to exert all abilities in bearing the burden. In other words, Ijtihad is done when there is work that is difficult to do.

In Islam, Ijtihad is the third source of law after the Qur’an and hadith. The main function of this Ijtihad is to establish a law which is not discussed in the Qur’an and hadith.

One of the examples of the implementation of the Ijtihad is in the process of determining 1 Ramadan and 1 Syawal, where the scholars discuss Islamic law to determine and establish the first sham.

The Law of Ijtihad

There are a number of legal bases required for ijtihad, including:


the law of ijtihad

“O you who believe, obey Allah and obey His Messenger, and beware of you. Then if you disagree on something, then return it to Allah (the Quran) and the Messenger (sunnah), if you truly believe in Allah and in the Hereafter. That is more (for you) and better as a result. ” (QS.Notes: 59)

and His other words:

“… So take it, you who have eyes”. (QS.Al-Hash: 2)

According to the first word, what is meant by being returned to Allah and the Apostle is that for those who study the Qur’an and the Hadith to examine the laws for which there are reasons, so that they can be applied to other legal events, and this is ijtihad .


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In the second word, those who are experts in understanding and meditating are ordered to take it like, and this means requiring them to perform jihad. Therefore, there must always be scholars who must do ijtihad. (Jalaluddin Rahmat, Basic Islamic Law, p. 163).


The words of the Holy Prophet: “Ijtihad are you, because each person will easily achieve what is intended for him” (Jalaluddin Rahmat, Basic Islamic Law, p. 163)

“The judge, on the basis of his conviction, can achieve the truth then he receives two merits (the merit of the ijtihad and the merit of the result). If he was to fulfill the truth then he did not attain to the truth, then he received one reward.


The Muslims and their various denominations have agreed on the recommendation of ijtihad, and indeed this ijtihad has been practiced correctly. Among the fruits and fruits of this ijtihad are the rich laws of fiqh which the mujtahids have been recommending from time to time. The same is the case with none of the nashas claiming the existence of ijtihad in order to explain its law by using one of the most common means.

Since the Shari’a of Islam must establish all the laws of the servants of Allah SWT then there is no other way than ijtihad. (Dr. Yusuf Al Qardlawy, Ijtihad in Islamic Law – Some Analytical Perspectives on Contemporary Ijtihad, p. 100)

Functions and Benefits of Ijtihad

Basically, Ijtihad has the function of helping people find legal solutions to a problem that has not been postulated in the Qur’an and hadith. While the goal of Ijtihad is to meet the needs of Muslims in worshiping Allah at a certain time and place.

In this case, Ijtihad is considered to have a position and legality in Islam. However, Ijtihad can only be done by certain people who have fulfilled the requirements. So, some of the benefits of Ijtihad are as follows:

  • When Muslims face new problems, the law will be known.
  • Adjust the laws applicable to Islam according to the circumstances, times and circumstances of the times.
  • Determine and determine the fatwa on all issues that are not related to halal-haram.
  • Helping Muslims deal with issues that are not legal in Islam.

Terms of Ijtihad (Mujtahid)

As mentioned earlier, only certain people who have fulfilled the requirements can do Ijtihad. The conditions for becoming Ijtihad are as follows:

  • To know the contents of the Qur’an and the hadith associated with it, though not out of the head.
  • It is necessary to know the Arabic language with the tools associated with it such as Nahwu, Shorof, Ma’ani, Bayan, Bad’i, in order to interpret the Qur’anic verses or As-Sunnah in a proper way of thinking.
  • Must know the science of fiqh proposal and qoidah fiqh as widely as possible, because science is the basis of jihad.
  • Must be aware of ijma ‘questions, until there is no contrary opinion on ijma’.
  • Must know the mansukh authorship of the Qur’an and the As-Sunnah.
  • Know the history of history and can distinguish it: which is a valid and valid hadith, which is dhoif, which is maqbul and mardud.
  • Knowing the secrets of the tasyri’i (asrarusy syari’ah) are the qoidah-qoidah which explain the purpose of shara ‘in laying the burden of a blanket on the mukallaf.


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Types of Ijtihad

Ijtihad can be divided into 7 types. Referring to the definition of Ijtihad above, as for several types of Ijtihad are as follows:

Ijma ‘

The meaning of Ijma ‘is a consensus among scholars in establishing Islamic law based on the Qur’an and hadith in a matter. The result of the consensus of these scholars was the fatwa adopted by the Muslims.


Understanding Qiyas is a legal determination of a new problem that has never existed before, but has similarities (benefits, causes, dangers) with other problems so that the same law is determined.

Maslahah Mursalah

The meaning of Maslahah Mursalah is a legal process based on consideration of its benefits and uses.

Sududz Dzariah

Understanding Sududz Dzariah is a termination of law for things that change makruh or haram for the benefit of the people.


Istishab is a determination of a law or rule until there is a good reason to change the provision.


The meaning of Urf is the possible conclusion of a custom and the freedom of a society as opposed to the Qur’an and the hadith.


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