Marcel Duchamp

Marcel Duchamp (Blainville-Crevon, July 28, 1887 – Neuilly-sur-Seine, October 2, 1968) was a French artist and chess player, especially known for his artistic activity, his work had a strong influence on the evolution of the movement pop in the twentieth century. Like this, he abhorred the symbolic sedimentation in artistic works as a consequence of the passage of time, and exalted the value of the conjunctural, the fleeting and the contemporary. Duchamp is one of the main supporters of artistic creation as a result of a pure exercise of the will, without the strict need for training, preparation or talent.1

Summary

[ hide ]

  • 1 Biography
  • 2 Artistic beginnings in Paris
  • 3 Cubist stage
  • 4 Dadaism
  • 5 Artwork
  • 6 Source

Biography

He was born on July 28, 1887 in Blainville-Crevon, a small town where his father, Eugène Duchamp, served as a notary and mayor. He was the third of six siblings. His two older brothers, who later adopted the names Raymond Duchamp-Villon and Jacques Villon, decided to pursue art, perhaps due to the influence of their maternal grandfather, who after earning a considerable fortune as a maritime agent had retired to dedicate himself to his main hobbies, engraving and painting, even exhibiting some works at the Universal Exhibition in Paris (1878). Like his older brothers, to whom he was very close, Marcel attended drawing classes at the high school. His brother Gaston (Jacques Villon) had achieved some fame as a poster painter in Paris, At a time when Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec and Alfons Mucha stood out, and Marcel, who admired his brother, tried to imitate his style in his first drawings.2 In the summer of 1902, at the age of fourteen, he painted his first oil paintings , of impressionist influence, in which landscapes of Blainville are shown. He would also make several drawings with different media (watercolor, wash, monotype, pencil) with a single subject: his sister Suzanne, two years his junior, who would also dedicate herself to painting. In 1904 he left the parental home to go to the Parisian neighborhood of Montmartre, where he lived with his brother Gaston. Marcel, like his brothers, had a monthly allowance that his father gave him as an advance on the inheritance. At the age of fourteen, he painted his first oil paintings, of impressionist influence, in which landscapes of Blainville are shown. He would also make several drawings with different media (watercolor, wash, monotype, pencil) with a single subject: his sister Suzanne, two years his junior, who would also dedicate herself to painting. In 1904 he left the parental home to go to the Parisian neighborhood of Montmartre, where he lived with his brother Gaston. Marcel, like his brothers, had a monthly allowance that his father gave him as an advance on the inheritance. At the age of fourteen, he painted his first oil paintings, of impressionist influence, in which landscapes of Blainville are shown. He would also make several drawings with different media (watercolor, wash, monotype, pencil) with a single subject: his sister Suzanne, two years his junior, who would also dedicate herself to painting. In 1904 he left the parental home to go to the Parisian neighborhood of Montmartre, where he lived with his brother Gaston. Marcel, like his brothers, had a monthly allowance that his father gave him as an advance on the inheritance. that he would also dedicate himself to painting. In 1904 he left the parental home to go to the Parisian neighborhood of Montmartre, where he lived with his brother Gaston. Marcel, like his brothers, had a monthly allowance that his father gave him as an advance on the inheritance. that he would also dedicate himself to painting. In 1904 he left the parental home to go to the Parisian neighborhood of Montmartre, where he lived with his brother Gaston. Marcel, like his brothers, had a monthly allowance that his father gave him as an advance on the inheritance.

Artistic beginnings in Paris

In 1904, Montmartre had been home to the artistic community of Paris for more than fifty years. Marcel took the exam at the École des Beaux-Arts, which he failed. He enrolled in a private school, the Académie Julian, which he abandoned shortly after for life in the neighborhood cafes, where, as was customary at the time, he kept a notebook in which he drew scenes from everyday life. After his military service in the United States, near Rouen, he returned to Paris in 1906. At that time he made humorous drawings, an activity that enjoyed prestige at the time. In 1907 five of his drawings were selected at the first Salon des Artistes Humoristes. In 1908 they were chosen, nowadays disappeared, for the Salon d’Automne, an important annual exhibition. Marcel painted during the following years in a Fauvist style, of which Matisse was the standard bearer. Although Duchamp, often contradictory in his statements, sometimes rejected Cézanne’s influence, on others he acknowledged having spent a long time under his influence, under which he would probably paint Portrait of the Artist’s Father, a psychological portrait of his father. He painted more portraits around that time, including one of his friend Dr. Dumochel in which he exaggerated some physical features. In this regard, Duchamp commented that it was a first attempt to give humor to his work.3 In 1910 he painted The Game of Chess, in which his two brothers appeared playing chess in a garden with their women absorbed in their musings. By exhibiting this painting together with four others in the Salon d’Automne, it became a societaire, which meant the right to exhibit without being previously examined by a jury. Although his early paintings showed talent, he produced few works compared to other artists. This was a time of hesitation and experimentation with various trends.

Cubist stage

It was a time of artistic revolutions: the collage of Picasso and Braque, Futurism, the works of Alfred Jarry, the poetry of Apollinaire, and the abstract art of Vasily Kandinsky, Robert Delaunay, and Piet Mondrian opened up modern art. From 1911 Duchamp began to innovate more seriously. According to Tomkins, the painting that marks the beginning of this stage is Sonata.4 In the painting, inspired by the cubism of his brother Jacques Villon, his three sisters appear playing a piece of music and his mother, an alien. After experimenting with “a Fauvism that was not based solely on distortion” 4 in The Thicket, he painted Yvonne and Magdaleine shredded and Portrait (Dulcinea), in which he plays with the themes of movement and transition, major themes in Duchamp’s work. . At this time he had a relationship with Jeanne Serre, According to Gough-Cooper and Caumont, the model in The Thicket, with whom he had a daughter, although Duchamp would not know it until much later.5 At that time he was hunted by Cubism on his visits to the Galerie Kahnweiler, where there were canvases of Picasso and Braque. As both Picasso and Braque refused to justify Cubism with theories or manifestos, the group of new Cubists in which the Duchamp brothers were found — with whom neither Picasso nor Braque were related — understood its intellectual foundation through the explanations of Jean Metzinger. This group met at Villon’s house in Puteaux on Sunday afternoons, hence the name Puteaux group. Among other topics, in the group discussions they spoke of two issues of importance to Duchamp: The fourth dimension and the art interpreted by the mind instead of the retina (retinal art). As a result of these new ideas, in 1911 he undertook the task of representing the mental activity of a game of chess, an effort that led to the Portrait of Chess Players. Although his technique does not stand out from other cubist works, the attempt to emphasize mental activity to the detriment of the “retinal” image does.

Starting with Portrait of Chess Players, the first innovative painting, each Duchamp work was different from the previous ones. He never stopped to explore the possibilities that a new work opened up, he just switched to something else. Around this time, he stopped visiting his brothers so much and began to be in contact only with a group of friends, especially with Picabia. Then he began to be interested in the pictorial representation of the idea of ​​movement. The first attempt at this line is Sad Young Man on a Train, which Duchamp considered a sketch. In addition to the new line that it opens, this work is notable for being the first time that Duchamp plays with words in his works, because according to him he chose sadly because of his alliteration with train.7 Duchamp’s next work continued this path . It is about Nude Descending a Staircase, of which he painted two versions. Nude, which began in December 1911, was surprising in the first place with its title, which he painted on the same canvas.8 The nude was an artistic subject with fixed rules already established, which certainly did not include figures coming down stairs. Duchamp showed the idea of ​​movement by means of successive superimposed images, similar to those of strobe photography. Both the sensation of movement and the nude are not found in the viewer’s retina, but in his brain. It combines elements of Cubism and Futurism, a movement that attacked the Cubism of the Puteaux group. The painting was supposed to be exhibited in the Cubist exhibition at the Salon des Indépendants, but Albert Gleizes asked his brothers to tell him to voluntarily withdraw the painting, or to change the title, which seemed cartoony, to which they agreed. Regarding this incident, Duchamp would later recall: (…) I did not reply. I said very well, very well, I took a taxi to the exhibition, recovered my painting and took it with me. It was a real turning point in my life. I realized that after that, I would never be too interested in groups again.However, if Nude Descending a Staircase encouraged Duchamp to go his own way without ascribing to theories or groups, it was another painting painted that same year that would mark the path that would end years later in the realization of The Great Glass (La marièe mise à nu pair ses celibataires): Coffee grinder, a small painting for his brother’s kitchen. According to Duchamp himself, he painted a description of the mechanism, structured in two parts, ideas also present in glass, although at that time he was not aware of what he supposed. Duchamp would later recall: (…) I did not reply. I said very well, very well, I took a taxi to the exhibition, recovered my painting and took it with me. It was a real turning point in my life. I realized that after that, I would never be too interested in groups again.However, if Nude Descending a Staircase encouraged Duchamp to go his own way without ascribing to theories or groups, it was another painting painted that same year that would mark the path that would end years later in the realization of The Great Glass (La marièe mise à nu pair ses celibataires): Coffee grinder, a small painting for his brother’s kitchen. According to Duchamp himself, he painted a description of the mechanism, structured in two parts, ideas also present in glass, although at that time he was not aware of what he supposed. Duchamp would later recall: (…) I did not reply. I said very well, very well, I took a taxi to the exhibition, recovered my painting and took it with me. It was a real turning point in my life. I realized that after that, I would never be too interested in groups again.However, if Nude Descending a Staircase encouraged Duchamp to go his own way without ascribing to theories or groups, it was another painting painted that same year that would mark the path that would end years later in the realization of The Great Glass (La marièe mise à nu pair ses celibataires): Coffee grinder, a small painting for his brother’s kitchen. According to Duchamp himself, he painted a description of the mechanism, structured in two parts, ideas also present in glass, although at that time he was not aware of what he supposed. ) I did not reply. I said very well, very well, I took a taxi to the exhibition, recovered my painting and took it with me. It was a real turning point in my life. I realized that after that, I would never be too interested in groups again.However, if Nude Descending a Staircase encouraged Duchamp to go his own way without ascribing to theories or groups, it was another painting painted that same year that would mark the path that would end years later in the realization of The Great Glass (La marièe mise à nu pair ses celibataires): Coffee grinder, a small painting for his brother’s kitchen. According to Duchamp himself, he painted a description of the mechanism, structured in two parts, ideas also present in glass, although at that time he was not aware of what he supposed. ) I did not reply. I said very well, very well, I took a taxi to the exhibition, recovered my painting and took it with me. It was a real turning point in my life. I realized that after that, I would never be too interested in groups again.However, if Nude Descending a Staircase encouraged Duchamp to go his own way without ascribing to theories or groups, it was another painting painted that same year that would mark the path that would end years later in the realization of The Great Glass (La marièe mise à nu pair ses celibataires): Coffee grinder, a small painting for his brother’s kitchen. According to Duchamp himself, he painted a description of the mechanism, structured in two parts, ideas also present in glass, although at that time he was not aware of what he supposed. I got my painting back and took it with me. It was a real turning point in my life. I realized that after that, I would never be too interested in groups again.However, if Nude Descending a Staircase encouraged Duchamp to go his own way without ascribing to theories or groups, it was another painting painted that same year that would mark the path that would end years later in the realization of The Great Glass (La marièe mise à nu pair ses celibataires): Coffee grinder, a small painting for his brother’s kitchen. According to Duchamp himself, he painted a description of the mechanism, structured in two parts, ideas also present in glass, although at that time he was not aware of what he supposed. I got my painting back and took it with me. It was a real turning point in my life. I realized that after that, I would never be too interested in groups again.However, if Nude Descending a Staircase encouraged Duchamp to go his own way without ascribing to theories or groups, it was another painting painted that same year that would mark the path that would end years later in the realization of The Great Glass (La marièe mise à nu pair ses celibataires): Coffee grinder, a small painting for his brother’s kitchen. According to Duchamp himself, he painted a description of the mechanism, structured in two parts, ideas also present in glass, although at that time he was not aware of what he supposed. I would never be too interested in groups again.However, if Nude Descending a Staircase encouraged Duchamp to follow his own path without ascribing to theories or groups, it was another painting painted that same year that would mark the path that would end years later in the realization of The Great Glass (La marièe mise à nu pair ses celibataires): Coffee grinder, a small painting for his brother’s kitchen. According to Duchamp himself, he painted a description of the mechanism, structured in two parts, ideas also present in glass, although at that time he was not aware of what he supposed. I would never be too interested in groups again.However, if Nude Descending a Staircase encouraged Duchamp to follow his own path without ascribing to theories or groups, it was another painting painted that same year that would mark the path that would end years later in the realization of The Great Glass (La marièe mise à nu pair ses celibataires): Coffee grinder, a small painting for his brother’s kitchen. According to Duchamp himself, he painted a description of the mechanism, structured in two parts, ideas also present in glass, although at that time he was not aware of what he supposed. It was another painting painted that same year that would mark the path that would end years later in the realization of The Great Glass (La marièe mise à nu pair ses celibataires): Coffee grinder, a small painting for his brother’s kitchen. According to Duchamp himself, he painted a description of the mechanism, structured in two parts, ideas also present in glass, although at that time he was not aware of what he supposed. It was another painting painted that same year that would mark the path that would end years later in the realization of The Great Glass (La marièe mise à nu pair ses celibataires): Coffee grinder, a small painting for his brother’s kitchen. According to Duchamp himself, he painted a description of the mechanism, structured in two parts, ideas also present in glass, although at that time he was not aware of what he supposed.

Dadaism

In 1916 Dadaism originated in Zurich by a group of artists fleeing the First World War. According to one of its founders, Tristan Tzara, Dadaism was not modern at all, and Duchamp associated it with Jarry and Aristophanes. They declared that all human work is art and considered that life was more important than art. Duchamp, who also had no interest in going to war, shared many points with the Swiss Dadaists, but claimed that what he and his circle were doing in New York “was not Dada.” The difference, according to him, was that the Dadaists “fought a battle against the public. And when a battle is going on, it is difficult to laugh at the same time. The atmosphere in New York was more jovial.29 However, Duchamp and his group are known as the New York Dadaists. Around that time he began to teach French to Katherine Dreier, who would be present for the next thirty years of his life. Dreier, the daughter of wealthy German immigrants, was the founding director of the Society of Independent Artists in 1916, and had voted against the Fountain, but after Duchamp’s resignation said that she did not find originality in him, but that if they had helped him to Those who did see it would have appreciated it.30 Later he commissioned a painting for his library. Duchamp took six months to make his first painting since 1914. The result, which he entitled Tu m’31 32 (which according to Tomkins is often read as Tu m’emmerdes, or “you bore me”), is a retinal painting that Duchamp himself he did not like it. It was the last canvas he painted in his life. A little later, however, he would go to Buenos Aires accompanied by Yvonne Chapel. The reasons, according to a letter to Jean Crotti, appear to be the tension in the Arensberg marriage and restrictions due to the war.33 It is not known why he chose Argentina. During his travel preparations, Duchamp gifted his works to his friends, including a study of the Large Glass that he gifted to Roché and a 7 × 5 cm miniature of Nude Descending a Staircase that he gifted to the Stettheimer sisters.

 

Construction site

After 1915 he painted very few works, although he continued to work until 1923 on his masterpiece, The Bride Naked by Her Bachelors, Even (1923, Philadelphia Museum of Art), an abstract work, also known as The Big Glass (Le grand verre). Made of paint and wire on glass, it was enthusiastically received by the surrealists. The original work is in the Philadelphia museum and is cracked, due to poor packaging in the transfer to the Brooklyn Museum in 1926, the only time it could be seen in its original condition. Ten years later, Duchamp himself restored the piece at the home of Katherine Dreier, at that time its owner. In the field of sculpture, he pioneered two of the major ruptures of the 20th century: kinetic art and ready-made art. The latter consisted simply of the arbitrary combination or arrangement of everyday objects, such as a urinal (La Fuente, 1917) or a bottle holder, which could be turned into art at the artist’s wish. The ready-made introduced a strong critique of the institutionality and fetishism of works of art, causing enormous tensions even within the same surrealist circle. His Bicycle Wheel (original from 1913 lost; third version from 1951, Museum of Modern Art, New York), one of the earliest examples of kinetic art, was mounted on a kitchen bench. In addition to his plastic work, it is very important to highlight his fondness for word games that were often present in the titles of his works, producing a multiplicity of hilarious readings. His creative period was short and then he let others develop the themes he had devised; Although he was not very prolific, his influence was crucial for the development of Surrealism, Dada and Pop Art, and even to this day, he remains the crucial artist for the understanding of postmodernity. It is frequent to detach from Duchamp’s works readings with explicitly sexual content, in general, the analyzes of his work move between psychoanalysis and academic and institutional questions of the plastic arts. In the last years of his life, Duchamp secretly prepared what would be his last work and that would be assembled only after his death, this is a diorama that is observed through a hole in a door of the Philadelphia museum, what there inside you see, it is a part of a woman’s body, holding a lamp in a rural landscape. The title adds even more uncertainty to the readings that can be made of the work “Given: 1. The waterfall 2. The gas of public lighting.” (Etant donnés: 1-la chute d’eau, 2- le gaz d ‘ éclairage.) There is another “reading” of Duchamp’s work, and, by inclusion, of all so-called “modern art”: All his work is a mockery of the viewer, completely devoid of meaning of any kind. Dalí openly scoffed at the “search for readings” of modern art critics. He used to say, “This thing I’ve done I don’t even know what it is, but it’s full of meaning.”

 

by Abdullah Sam
I’m a teacher, researcher and writer. I write about study subjects to improve the learning of college and university students. I write top Quality study notes Mostly, Tech, Games, Education, And Solutions/Tips and Tricks. I am a person who helps students to acquire knowledge, competence or virtue.

Leave a Comment