Feminism or feminist movement is known for promoting equal rights between the sexes. Feminism today has a great diversity of thought trends or foci of interest, but the movement perceives itself as one. We are going to know the 20 most important types of feminism.
Simone de Beauvoir
Philosophical feminism is one whose purpose is to reflect on the idea, concept and function of women within the social order. It also proposes the revision of the history of philosophy, from where the trace of the woman was erased. It has served as a foundation and justification for the different feminist movements.
Throughout history, figures such as Mary Wollstonecraft (forerunner), Flora Tristán, John Stuart Mill, Simone de Beauvoir, Clara Campoamor, María Laffitte and, currently, Celia Amorós and Amelia Valcárcel, have stood out in philosophical feminism, among others.
Radical feminism, also known as radfem , is a movement that emerged around the 1960s. Contrary to popular belief, it is quite far from extremism. It takes the name of radical by the word “root”, since it is proposed to investigate the roots of oppression of women. For this type of feminism, the oppression “lies” in the socio-political and economic order, from which discrimination practices such as racism and classism also derive.
Liberal feminism is one that seeks to promote the recognition and acceptance of women’s capacities in activities and jobs that have historically been associated with men. It deals with promoting inclusion laws that can promote equal opportunities.
Gender equality symbol
Equality feminism is committed to an activist agenda, and aims to promote social practices of equality between men and women, with the understanding that gender differences are strictly cultural. This supposes the pretension to consolidate a new social order based on democratic and egalitarian values.
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Feminism of difference
The feminism of difference starts from psychoanalysis and from the concept of otherness. He considers the woman as an absolutely other being, that is, as a specificity not equal to the male. It assumes the exploration of the unconscious as a mechanism for the construction of the feminine identity.
Factual or scientific feminism
This type of feminism is based on evolutionary biology and psychology. He opposes the idea that the only differences between men and women are cultural, as he recognizes biological differences. However, it points out that such differences do not justify gender inequality and that, therefore, it is necessary to build a truly inclusive society in terms of rights.
Symbol of the feminist movement in general.
Abolitionist feminism is concerned with fighting commercial and sexual exploitation of the female body and all forms of trafficking in women. Among its main objectives is the abolition of prostitution, from which its name derives. But it is not limited to it. He also opposes gestational surrogacy (surrogacy or surrogate for rent) and pornography.
In socialist feminism, reflection on the ways of building power in society based on Marxist theory is fundamental. It emphasizes the material realities and the economic conditions that can act as perpetuators of oppression. Marxist feminism takes into account the specific way in which it influences capitalism as the dominant system in the hegemony of patriarchy.
Postcolonial feminism is one that studies and reflects on the condition of women in postcolonial geopolitical spheres, where dependency relations with the former dominant metropolis have played a role in social construction. It shows the adoption of the colonizer’s schemes of thought, of which the population is usually unconscious. Among them, racism, classism and machismo.
Anarcofeminism or anarchist feminism
Anarcofeminism is a political philosophy of the fight for gender equality that takes as a reference the postulates of anarchist ideology. From her point of view, anarchism is favorable to feminism since it questions or adversely affects the different modes of social control, of which patriarchy is an expression.
Black Feminism Poster
Black feminism takes into account the particular situation of racial minorities, whose discrimination and social marginalization are aggravating the condition of subalternity of Afro-descendant women in the context of various societies. This feminism understands that racism, in addition to patriarchy, has an influence on the ordering of power and gender roles.
Male feminism, also known as allies of feminism or egalitarian men, is a men’s movement committed to gender equality. Study the effects of the culture of patriarchy and machismo, not only as a constructor of privileges based on gender, but especially as a deceptive mechanism that also limits the freedom of men within the social order.
Lesbian feminism reviews the naturalization of sexual normativity, specifically heterosexuality. He understands that the naturalization of heterosexuality favors the concept of social roles according to gender. For example, that women must take care of household chores while men must be providers. Lesbian feminism applies the term heteronormative principles to this traditional conception of social roles by gender.
It encompasses different trends that propose the development of women within the framework of a counterculture of the feminine. He considers the woman morally superior to the man, and sees in her a link with the special nature due to her motherhood.
NOTE: We must clarify that, however, before this meaning, the expression cultural feminism referred to depoliticized feminism.
Separatist feminism bases part of its reflections on theories of lesbian feminism. However, it is distinguished in that it proposes the separation of men and women as the only way for women to reach their potential. Within separatist feminism there are two tendencies: general separatism and lesbian separatism.
Cyberfeminism studies the way in which notions of gender are constructed in social networks and cyberspace in general, whose conditions and practices allow us to circumvent the traditional conception of gender roles.
Ecofeminism relates feminism to the study and protection of the environment. It identifies an analogy between the indiscriminate exploitation of the ecosystem by capitalism, and the exploitation of the female body in the patriarchal order, in a way that considers capitalism and patriarchy an expression of the same phenomenon. In this sense, he understands that the matriarchal model is presented as an alternative of a horizontal nature.
Pro-life feminism speaks out against abortion while endorsing the rest of the feminist agenda. Pro-life feminism argues that the principle of equality must go through respect for the life of the most vulnerable, including the unborn. It also questions the supposed advantages or convenience of abortion for women.
Transfeminism is based on queer theory , and states that not only gender is a sociocultural construction, but also biological sex. This perspective has come into conflict with other forms of feminism that, in fact, ignore this movement as a feminist and call it transactivism .
Dissident feminism groups women who distance themselves from some goals or methods from other feminisms. It is not unified. Some sectors relativize the weight of patriarchy in female oppression, others question the need to modify the civil code.