Malic acid. Also named hydroxysuccinic , it is one of the most abundant acids in nature, responsible for the origin of the acid taste in apples. It was first isolated from cider in 1785 by the German chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele .
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- 1 Origin
- 2 Properties
- 3 Application
- 4 Effects on the body
- 5 Sources
Malic acid is an acid of natural origin present in most fruits and many vegetables; and it is part of the metabolic pathways of each of the living cells. Malic acid is found in some acid-flavored fruits and vegetables such as quinces , grapes , apples, and unripe cherries . It is involved in the regeneration of ATP or energy that the human body uses to perform metabolic functions.
The most significant properties of Malic acid are shown in the following table:
|Appearance||White powders or crystals.|
|Molecular weight||134.09 g / mol|
|Melting point||131 ° C|
|Boiling point||235 ° C|
|Density||1,609 g / cm3|
|Solubility||Good solubility in water (56% v / v at 20ºC). Solubility in Ethyl Alcohol of
18% v / v at 20ºC
The applications of this acid are multiple. It can be used to produce electric current through malolactic fermentation. In turn, it is used as an additive, specifically as an acidulant in soft drinks along with citric acid , phosphoric acid , balancing the sweetness produced by the addition of sugars. In the same way, malolactic fermentation of the wine is used in the fermentation, lowering its fixed acidity. It is used as an acid, flavoring and color stabilizer in apple and grape juices, in the manufacture of certain laxatives and to treat throat conditions, as well as in medications indicated on the respiratory system.
Effects to the organism
Scientific studies have shown that the deficiency of malic acid in the tissues can be one of the factors to suffer fibromyalgia , it is a disease characterized by abundant muscle pain.
There are no known side effects, however it is recommended that foods intended for children have a low concentration of it, since they lack the ability to metabolize large amounts of malic acid. The maximum daily intake is unlimited