Humans have the ability to move and do activities, such as walking, running, jumping and other activities. The ability of human motion is influenced by the motion system, which is the result of harmonious cooperation between the organs of the motion system, for example the skeleton (bones), joints, and muscles.
Skeletal (bone) function is a passive locomotor, which can be moved if assisted by muscles.
The function of the muscles is as a means of active motion, which can move other organs so as to produce a motion.
Joint function as a link between the bones of one bone to another.
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Bone-forming elements are calcium elements in the form of salts which are preserved by callogens. In the study of the shape of the bones and body skeletons that are arranged can experience abnormalities caused by disorders carried from birth, disease, nutritional factors, and others.
Function of the body’s framework
The framework has important functions for the body, for example as follows:
- Body builder
- Body shaper
- The place where muscles are attached
- Protector of important body parts
- Passive movers
- Place of formation of red blood cells
The human framework can be divided into 3 parts
Skull section (Head)
The head is composed of several flat bones that function as a place for making red blood cells and white blood cells.
The arrangement of the skull consists of the following components:
- Forehead bone
- 1 Bone filter
- 2 Tornbone
- 2 Nose Bone
- 2 cheekbones
- 2 Ceiling bones
- 2 Bone Wedge
- 2 Bare bones
- 2 Tearbone
- 2 Upper jawbone
- 1 Bone of the tongue
- 1 skull bone
- 2 Upper bone
The Agency Section is divided into 5 groups
- There are 33 segments of the spine
- The 12 pair ribs consist of:
- 7 pairs of true rusu bones
- 3 pairs of fake ribs
- 2 pairs of floating ribs
- Chest bone, consisting of:
- Upstream bone
- Body bone and
- Sword bones
- The shoulder band consists of:
- 2 collarbone (left and right)
- 2 shoulder blades (left and right)
- The hip ring consists of:
- 2 sitting bones (left and right)
- 2 intestinal bones (left and right)
- 2 pubic bones (left and right)
Parts of the limbs
The limbs can be divided into 2 parts, namely:
1) Upper limb (left and right hand)
- 2 pelvic bones
- 2 upper arm bones
- 2 cubits
- 16 wrist bones
- 10 palm bones
- 28 segments of the finger joint
2) Lower limbs (right and left legs), including:
- 2 femur
- 2 bones of the kneecap
- 2 dry beds
- 2 calf bones
- 14 ankle bones
- 10 palm bones
- 28 segment of the toe bone
Bone type and function
According to the types of bones found in the human body can be divided into 2 groups:
This cartilage is composed of several cartilage cells, the space between cartilage cells contains a lot of adhesives and lime, which are flexible. Cartilage is widely owned by young children and in adults, namely at the ends of the ribs, larynx, trachea, bronchi, nose, ears, anatar vertebrae. The process of changing cartilage to hard bone is called ossification.
B) Hard bones
The formation of hard bones is caused by bone-forming cells, or what is called osteoblasts, the segment between hard bone cells is lime, with little adhesive, which is hard. Lime is formed by calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and calcium phosphate (Ca (PO4) 2) carried by the blood. There are havers in the hard bones in which there are many blood vessels that regulate the life of bone cells. The hard bones function in the framework. For example the thigh bone, arm bone, calf bone, and collarbone.
Based on the shape of the bone is divided into 3 forms, including the following:
1 # Pipe Bones
Pipe bone has a pipe-like shape that is round, long and the center resembles a pipe. Inside it contains yellow marrow. Examples of pipe bones are the thigh bone, middle bone, and upper arm bone.
2 # Flat bones
This flat or flat bone shape functions as a place for the formation of red blood cells and white blood cells. Examples of flat bones are the breastbone, ribs, and shoulder blades.
3 # Short bones
The shape of the short bone is short and sticky, the inside of the bone contains red marrow. Examples such as vertebrae, ankle bones and wrist bones.
Several types of abnormalities in the bone (Order)
There are several factors that cause disturbances or abnormalities in the bones, such as abnormalities since birth, food or drink factors, infectious disease factors and incorrect posture habits.
Some abnormalities in the skeleton or body bones, as follows:
- Scoliosis, is an abnormality in the spine that is curved to the side. This can occur in people who suffer from heart disease that endures the pain by tilting the body sideways, resulting in his backbone tilting.
- Rickets, is an abnormality in the bones caused by lack of a source of vitamin D, which causes leg bones shaped like the letter X or O.
- Lordosis, is an abnormality in the backbone that experiences bending towards the back, this is due to a bad habit of sleeping with a waist prop.
- Kyphosis, which is an abnormality in the spine that is bent forward, this can occur due to the habit of sitting or working in a bent position.
- Polio, is a bone carcinoma caused by infection with a virus, so that the bones are chopped and abnormal.
In the human body there are more than 200 bones connected together. The relationship between bones is called joints or articulation. Joints have a very important role in the human motion system. Based on the nature of the motion of the joints can be grouped into three parts, namely as follows:
A) Dead Joints
Dead joints are joints that do not have joint gaps so movement cannot occur. Examples of dead joints are joints between the skull bones.
B) Motion Joints
Joints are joints that occur in one bone with another bone that is not connected to the network, causing free movement. In the motion joints can be grouped into four types, namely:
- Hinge joints, are joints that can be moved in one direction. For example, joints between the femur and calf bones, joints between the bones of the arm with cubits.
- Rotating Joints, are joints that can be rotated. For example, joints between the cervical vertebrae with atlas, joints between cubits and picking bones.
- Saddle joints, are joints that can be moved both For example, joints in the thumb, joints between the wrist bones with the bones of the palm.
- Bullet Joints, are joints that can be moved in all directions. For example, the joints between the shoulder bracelets with the bones of the upper arm, the joints between the hip and thigh bones.
C) Stiff joints
Rigid joints are joints consisting of the ends of cartilage, so stiff motion can still occur, for example joints between stiff joints.
Muscles in humans work by contracting so the muscles will shorten, the middle part bulging and hardening. Shortened muscles can cause bones to be attached by these muscles to be pulled and lifted. With the contraction of one muscle can cause the bones to move only in one particular direction, to be able to return to its original place, there must be a muscle that reacts. Therefore, it requires at least two kinds of muscles with different performance.
Muscles can be divided into 3 groups, namely as follows:
A) Based on how it works
1 # Antagonistic Muscle
This muscle that causes antagonistic motion occurs or more often called the opposite muscle motion. Examples of antagonistic muscle movements are the work of the biceps and triceps on the upper and lower arms.
The biceps is a muscle that has two tendons (ends) attached to the bone and is located in the upper arm bone in front. While the triceps muscle is a muscle that has three tendons (ends) attached to the bone and is located in the upper arm of the back.
To lift the forearm, the biceps contract and the triceps react. And to lower the forearm, the triceps muscle contracts and the biceps react.
2 # Synergistic muscles
This muscle causes synergistic movements, which are concurrent movements in one direction. So, both of these muscles contract and relax simultaneously. Examples of synergistic muscle movements are hand movements, face down.
This movement occurs because of the cooperation between the pronator teres muscle with the quadratus protator muscle. Another example is rib motion due to the cooperation of muscles between the ribs when humans breathe.
B) According to the form and how it works
1) Plain muscle
The characteristics of smooth muscle are as follows:
- Has one cell nucleus.
- Spindle-shaped, with both ends tapered and bulging in the middle.
- Located in the intestinal muscles, circulatory tract muscles, urinary tract muscles, etc.
- Do not have transverse lines (plain).
- Working out of awareness, which means not under the brain’s command
2) Striated Muscle
The characteristics of striated muscles are as follows:
- Cylindrical and elongated.
- Has many cell nuclei.
- Found in the thigh muscles, calf muscles, and chest muscles.
- Visible cross lines are arranged like dark and alternating bright areas
- Working under consciousness, Muscles work on the brain’s command.
3) Heart muscle
The characteristics of the heart muscle are as follows:
- The work of the heart muscle cannot be controlled by our will, but it works according to the motion of the heart.
- This heart muscle is only found in the heart. The structure is the same as the striated muscle, alternating dark light and intermittent branching of cells.
Heart muscle according to its shape like a striated muscle and from how it works like smooth muscle, therefore called special muscle.
Abnormalities in human muscles can be caused due to the amount of motion and work of muscles. This happens because of interference from outside factors and internal factors. External factors are caused by illness and illness. And while factors from within due to inbornity or the occurrence of muscle errors that have never been trained.
The following kinds of abnormalities in the muscles, among others:
- Tetanus, is a disorder in the muscles that experience continuous tension caused by bacterial toxins.
- Stiff neckor stiff , is a muscle disorder that occurs due to motion or pounding that causes inflamed trapesius muscles.
- Atrophy, is a muscle disorder that causes the muscles to become smaller caused by the polio virus or because the muscles do not function for motion due to paralysis.
- Sprains, are muscle disorders caused by synergistic movements of one muscle working in opposite directions.
- Cramps, is a muscle disorder that occurs due to continuous muscle activity so that the muscles become spasms.