Khaki

Persimmon ( Diospyros kaki ). A species of shrub native to Asia . Its fruit , the persimmon or persimmon, is an edible berry with a very sweet flavor. It is round in shape similar to an apple or tomato . In Cuba there are few plants; they have been seen in Amaro , Villa Clara ; San Luis , Pinar del Río , and in isolated courtyards in Havana and San Antonio de los Baños and Alquízar in the province of Artemisa . [one]

Summary

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  • 1 Taxonomy
    • 1 Scientific name
      • 1.1 Authors
    • 2 Combinations for this basonym
    • 3 Synonymy
    • 4 Common name
  • 2 Review
  • 3 Morphology and taxonomy
  • 4 Economic importance and geographical distribution
  • 5 edaphoclimatic requirements
  • 6 Propagation
  • 7 Plant material
  • 8 Special features of the crop
    • 1 Subscriber
    • 2 Irrigation
    • 3 Weeds
    • 4 Pruning
    • 5 Collection
  • 9 Plagues
  • 10 Diseases
    • 1 Physiopathies
  • 11 Packaging
  • 12 References
  • 13 Sources

Taxonomy

Scientific name

  • Diospyros kaki Thunb.

Parties

[2] [3] [4]

Authors

  • Thunberg, Carl Peter
  • Published in: Nova Acta Regiae Societatis Scientiarum Upsaliensis 3: 208. 1780. [5]

Combinations for this basonym

  • Embryopteris kaki (Thunb.) G. Don [6]

Synonymy

  • Diospyros amara Perrier
  • Diospyros argyi H.Lév.
  • Diospyros bertii André
  • Diospyros chinensis Blume
  • Diospyros costata Carrière
  • Diospyros kaempferi Naudin
  • Diospyros kaki var. André aurantium
  • Diospyros kaki var. Makino domestic
  • Diospyros kaki var. elliptic André
  • Diospyros kaki var. sahuti André
  • Diospyros kaki var. Silvestris Makino
  • Diospyros lycopersicon Carrière
  • Diospyros mazelii E. Morren
  • Diospyros roxburghii Carrière
  • Diospyros schi-tse Bunge
  • Diospyros sinensis Naudin
  • Diospyros sphenophylla Hiern
  • Diospyros trichocarpa RHMiao
  • Diospyros wieseneri Carrière
  • Embryopteris kaki (Thunb.) G.Don [7]

Common name

  • Persimmon, persimmons, kaki, kakis, mud, rosewood, rosewood, sapote, zapote, jatobá, yatobá.

Review

It is cultivated in China and Japan where it has been cultivated since the 8th century . In western countries it was introduced taking into account the growing conditions of its area of ​​origin; This occurred recently in two aspects: in the USA . at the beginning of the 19th century and in France , Spain and Italy around 1870 .

Morphology and taxonomy

  • Size: Of somewhat slow growth in the first years, it can reach up to twelve meters in height or more, although in cultivation something lower is preferred (5-6). Short trunk and extended cup.
  • Leaves: Deciduous, briefly petiolated, which often come off the treeand turn from red to orange before harvesting the fruit.
  • Flowers: With a very characteristic reproductive system: dioecious ( male and female flowerson different feet), monoecious (male and female flowers on the same foot) and hermaphrodite (full flowers). They are normally monoecious, with male flowers in flowers of three and develop in the armpit of the leaves. The female ones are quite large, have greenish petals and are solitary and pendulous. Currently only female feet are being put on. The calyx remains even when the fruit is very close to maturity.

Persimmon Fruit

  • Fruit: Berry with a very characteristic square shape. The calyx constitutes a fundamental part in the fruit set (if it is removed, it does not curdle) because it is a source of cytokinins, and it intervenes in the maintenance of the fruit. The pulp is very astringent until it is ripe, at that time its flavor is sweet. The mature seeds secrete acetaldehyde that polymerizes the cells responsible for astringency, which is accompanied by a browning of the pulp.
  • Pollination: It is carried out by insects. Fruits may curdle partenocárpicamente although fruiting ensures pollination, but consumers prefer fruit without seeds.

Economic importance and geographical distribution

The main producing countries are: Japan, China, the USA, Brazil, and India.

Productions from Italy, Israel and Spain compete in the European market.

Currently, the area with the highest profitability is Andalusia due to the Israeli variety Sharon (but in fact it is the North American variety renamed Triumph), which was exported as non-astringent (persimmon-apple). Of the total of Spanish production, 65 to 70% is exported and goes to France, Germany and Portugal . The Spanish production areas are located in very specific regions: in the Ribera del Jucar ( Valencia ) with designation of origin.

This expansion is due to the native Red Brilliant variety and to the plucking of plums and apricot trees caused by the Sharka virus .

Its consumption is mainly fresh, after an artificial maturation process or astringency elimination. Industrial transformation is underdeveloped in Spain in the form of desserts, drinks , smoothies, ice creams and jams.

Edaphoclimatic requirements

Open fruit

It is a tree very well adapted to the Mediterranean climate .

The late flowering avoids spring frost problems, although very low temperatures can damage the buds. The D. Virginiana pattern gives it greater resistance to cold. It has low cold-hour requirements (100), but budding is late due to degree-day needs.

It requires long and warm summers for the ripening of the fruits, so that the leaf falls before the fruit ripens. It is demanding in light , so shading does not go well. It is sensitive to strong winds, especially at the end of the summer with the weight of the fruits causing their fall and scratches on them, causing the branches to break and affecting the anchorage of the tree.

It prefers fertile, deep clay-loam or clay-clay-loam soils, with abundant organic matter and adequate drainage due to its sensitivity to excess moisture. D. Virginiana can explore up to 20cm deep.

Propagation

It can be carried out in different ways.

  • Layer of root suckers.
  • Reproduction by seeds (used in Japan).
  • Slit graft on frank pattern or D. Lotus, which is the most common method, with yields of 90%. The yolk graft (gusset) provides poor yields. Due to the fragility of the root system, it is preferable to carry out the graftingin the field, after a year of aging of the pattern and the variety, to avoid problems of marra.

Vegetal material

The varieties are divided according to astringency into “astringents” and “non-astringent”. The astringents are the traditional ones and need a correct maturation for their consumption (Tomatero, Gordo, Rojo Brillante, Hachiya, Tanenashi, Kushillama etc.). The “non-astringent” varieties are currently the most consumed and among these the “apple type” Sharon and Fuyu stand out. In Spain varieties of astringent and Sharon fruits are cultivated.

Crop particularities

The planting frames vary according to the formation of the tree , but always favoring lighting. It will be 3×5 in palmeta, 5×6 or 6×6 in glass or pyramid.

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It requires a lot of organic matter, so it is convenient to make a bottom fertilizer with 60-80T / Ha of organic matter, also providing approximately 150 units of potassium and phosphorus, 80 of calcium and 40 of magnesium. Annually, 50 units of phosphorus, 70 of potassium and 80-100 of nitrogen are usually supplied, the latter in ammonia form and divided into two passes, applying 2/3 in spring for fruit set and 1/3 in summer during fruit fattening. . It frequently suffers from iron chlorosis, so it will be necessary to avoid limestone soils (there are no less susceptible patterns) and provide iron chelates. It also suffers from magnesium deficiency.

Irrigation

It can be grown as a fresh rainfed plant, but if the rainfall is not enough it needs light and continuous watering for support that will be given every three weeks during the summer. Production increases in irrigation and localized irrigation with more frequent and lighter irrigation is preferable, due to the superficial root system (although with a pattern of D. Virginiana it explores up to 20m).

Weeds

It suffers with the tillage due to the superficiality of the roots, therefore it is preferable to “no tillage” or street tillage, leaving the immediate vicinity of the trunk untilled and eliminating weeds with herbicides.

Pruning

The glass formation is preferred due to its analogy with the peach tree, although its multi-storey pyramid formation is more suitable, since it is better adapted to its habit of youthful growth (apical dominance). Palmet formation can also be carried out, increasing production with respect to the two previous systems, since it allows higher planting densities and adapts very well to flat forms (it does not branch much).

Pruning will be quite light: the length of the branches is limited, to reduce the load and to avoid breakage, a common practice is to prop up the fruit branches. When the fruit load is excessive the tree performs a natural thinning when the fruit reaches a considerable size, although thinning can be forced, the earlier the better, provided there is no risk of frost.

Harvest

The astringency of the fruit is due to the presence of tannins in the pulp, which are eliminated by polymerization with ethanol or acetaldehyde released by the seeds once the fruit has matured. After harvesting, astringency can be eliminated by various artificial methods: exposure to alcoholic vapors ( sake , whiskey or brandy ) or to acatylene, ethylene or ethephon or treatment in storage for 24 hours at 20-25ºC in an atmosphere with 95% CO2 .

Pests

  • Fruit fly ( Ceratitis Capitata):

Persimmon Bonsai

It is the most harmful pest in Spain, but early harvesting in astringent varieties cannot be resorted to unless artificial maturation is carried out. It requires treatments from the color change of the fruit to the harvest, therefore it will be necessary to control the residues. In the early summer or late spring, the females lay on the fruits. White larvae hatch from the eggs , feeding on the fruit, rendering it useless, they fall to the ground, therefore directly affecting the harvest.

  • Control methods: To eliminate the adults before they lay, flycatchers are placed on the trees one month before the fruit ripens with a food attractant (ammonium phosphate dissolved in 2% water) or a sexual attractant (Trimedlure) that attracts and catches males. A zone of the tree (about one square meter) oriented at noon is treated and insecticides such as: Fenthion, Diazinon, Trichlorfon are used. therefore the food attracts the insect and the insecticide kills it. Sterilization of laboratory-reared males is also used. Sterile males loose and compete with fertile males; thus females mated with sterile males do not produce eggs.
  • Persimmon Sesia: ( Synanthedon tipuliformis): It is a lepidopteran similar to a fly due to its natural mimicry. Eggs are laid in spring on one-year-old branches and near the yolks. The larvae penetrate the interior of the branches causing lesions in the cambium. The tender shoots are also attacked, and this one ends up drying up. If the larvae affect the grafting point, the tree dies .
  • Control methods: Elimination of the organs affected by the larvae and carry out treatments with phosphoric esters in June since it is the moment when the laying is maximum. It is treated twice with a rest period of 15-20 days between the two interventions.
  • Elongated mealybugEulecanium persicae ): It is a reddish-brown polyphago hymenopteran. Its development occurs on little sunny trees or with a very compact crown. They suck the sap, weaken the tree and as a consequence the fruiting decreases.
  • Control methods: Treatments with white oils activated with phosphoric esters applied to the larvaebetween May-June. Branches should be cleared during winter .
  1. Gibelic Acid 1.6% or 9% soluble concentrate in a dose of 0.2-0.3% with a safety period of 7 days.
  2. Glyphosate 36% soluble concentrate in a 0.2-0.3% dose with a safety period of 7 days.
  3. Malathion 50% soluble concentrate in a dose of 0.3l / ha with a safety period of 7 days.
  4. Malathion 90% soluble concentrate at a dose of 0.3% with a safety period of 7 days.
  • San José louse (Quadraspidiotus perniciosus): The damage it causes is mainly due to the injection of a toxic saliva into the tissues and the subtraction of sap produced by the bites. If the attack becomes severe, it weakens the tree and dries up.
  • Control methods: Treatments with 6-8% Barium Polysulfide or with white oils at the beginning of the bud opening. In spring Malathion, Fenitrothion, Diazinon and Fentoate are applied; low or medium toxicity or systemic as Dimethoate or Metidathion.
  • Green stink bug (Nezara viridula): Green hemiptera. It affects the fruit with the green coloration producing outgrowths of violet color, near the base. It produces the deformation of the fruit.
  • Control methods: If they are concentrated in large numbers on reduced surfaces, they are fought with broad-spectrum insecticides and low toxicity such as Malation, Tetrachlorvinfos, etc.
  • Birds: Cause damage when consuming berries. They are controlled by shotguns, within the regulations of each Autonomous Community. The most significant modification of its habitat is the placement of wire mesh and as the most effective repellant method, it is worth highlighting mobile pyrooptical elements and gascannons .
  • Cryptobables gnidiella: It is an increasingly frequent lepidopteran that depreciates the fruit as it is gnawed by the larva .
  • Control methods: Formothion, systemic phosphorous, Endosulfan, Chlorpyrifos, both chlorinated and phosphorous and Fenitrothion phosphorous.

Diseases

Among the diseases, anthracnose and the fungi Armillaria mellea and Cephalosporium diospyri stand out, the latter being especially severe with a pattern of D. Virginiana and D. Cyspertia.

  • Armillaria mellea is introduced between the wood and the bark of the roots, practically inaccessible to chemical fight; and soil disinfection is difficult to apply and at high cost. Biological control is effective using Trichoderma viride due to its antagonistic properties with respect to A. Mellea, since they reduce the onset and growth of underground rhizomorphs, but this method of control is linked to the pH of the soil and the persistence of organic substrates that allow a development of other competing organizations already installed. But almost always the fight against A. Mellea is reduced to uprooting and burning the stumps and roots of diseased trees, to reduce the inoculum in the soil; irrigation contributions should be limited, excess moisture should be avoided, organic matter should be reduced and mineral fertilizers should be used.
  • Gray rot (Botrytis cinerea): It affects the leaves, shoots and fruits.
  • Control methods: The treatments will be done using generic products such as Folpet, Captafol, Vinzoclozina and Glicofeno.

Physiopathies

  • Purple spot: it is a physiological alteration related to calciumdeficiency , which affects the fruit and makes marketing difficult. Some cultivars are more sensitive than others. Calcium applications are generally made.

Packing

It is done manually or using machinery not specifically for this fruit, so it is not very suitable as it is a very delicate fruit. Given the expansion of cultivation in Spain, industrial and conservation processes should be investigated.

 

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