Introduction To Linguistics: Complete Guide About Linguistics

Introduction To Linguistics Study is very important for every language student.There are still many people who do not understand the real definition of linguistics and language. Though the language is so close to our lives, even we cannot be separated from the name of the language. Linguistics originated from the Latin word lingua which means the language. I will elaborate the following topics in this article.

Formulation of the problem

What is the definition of linguistic?

What is the history of linguistics?

What is the basic principle of linguistic studies?

What linguistic relationship with other sciences.

What kinds of linguistic sub disciplines.

Definition Linguistics 

Introduction To Linguistics: Complete Guide About Linguistics

 Linguistics is the science of language; this definition does not convey all information to the readers. Because language means: a tool which is used by members of a social group for communication between the individual with the other individual. So we can say that linguistics is branch of science that examines the sound system, which is used by group of social members. It will not only investigate one language only, but will investigate all the languages ​​used by humans in everyday life.

Introduction To Linguistics: You Must Understand The Basic Principle Of Linguistic Studies 

Introduction To Linguistics: Complete Guide About Linguistics

 Linguistics is a study that is based on reality. In which two objects are studied object of material or object of form. The basic principal of linguistics is material objects as a spoken language. Material object itself includes many principles research, that including is natural. So this is natural phenomena. The second one is the description, which the data should be provided as it is. In this principle, the research will be based on the theory brought by researchers,. However, Linguistic science is descriptive, not prescriptive. The main task of a linguist is to describe (describe) how real people behave their language to speak and write but not (prescribe) how should they speak and write. So it can be said that linguistics is an empirical science, the science is based on facts and data that can be tested.

Linguistic Sub Disciplines:

Introduction To Linguistics: Complete Guide About Linguistics


 Phonology is a branch of linguistics that studies sound. Phonology include phonetic and phonemic. Phonetics is a field of study that examines linguistic sound. It is divided into three parts, namely articulator (studying the mechanism of how the tools work in generating human speech sounds of language, a phonetics acoustic learn the sounds of language from physical or natural phenomena,  and phonetics auditory (learn How mechanism acceptance speech sound it by our ears.


Morphology is the science of identifying the basic units of language as grammatical units. Morpheme is the smallest element of morpheme as Men- her / her / his / some etc.

Morpheme can be divided into free morpheme and bound morpheme. Free morpheme is a morpheme that can stand alone and have a meaning that is clear. Example: write, eat, drink and play.

Morpheme that cannot stand alone and can only be associated to another part of word: for example in, if, beau, un, im,lly etc.The plural form of s in cats:

Affixation is the process of formation of words by adding an affix / suffix. This process is classified into four, namely: the prefix (prefix), suffix (,  (prefix and suffix), and infix (inset).


 Semantics is the branch of linguistics that discusses the issues of meaning. Semantics can be distinguished based on several criteria and viewpoints. It can be distinguished between the lexical level and grammatical level. Lexical semantics investigates the meanings in words, for example: home meaning is building for human habitation. While semantic grammar is a new meaning that comes due to grammatical processes, for example:

Referential are words that have referents, while the non-referential are words that do not have referents.

Furthermore, the relation of meaning are also a variety of form, such as synonymy (words which has two meanings for example: can be), antonym (word having the opposite meaning of the concepts, examples: good with the bad), homonymy (two words or more that has a form similar but different meanings, for example: can in a sense can be in terms of poison), homophony.


 Pragmatics is a branch of linguistics that examines when more is conveyed than said: Pragmatics and semantics are both talking about meaning, but the difference is lies in the use of meaning in a situation or context. Some basics of pragmatic include text, context, contexts, diesis, discourse and presupposition.


Humans use language for to communicate with each other. Science used to learn the language is known as linguistics.  Linguistics examines the language associated with the life of society in general. So the study of linguistics is essential for life, because someone will understand how to use the language good and bad.

by Abdullah Sam
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