Human Body Joints

The joints of the human body, belonging to the articular system , are responsible for many movements that we perform.

It connects the bones of the human skeleton to the other bones and cartilage. This happens in the knees, elbows, wrists, ankles, shoulders, among others.

Therefore, we can say that the joint is the meeting point between the bones , enabling the body’s movements.

Classification of joints

The joints of the human body are classified into three types

The joints are classified according to the degree of mobility they offer. They can be of three types:

  • Syninarthrosis: These are fibrous joints, located between one bone and another, characterized by being inflexible . The two bony surfaces are practically continuous, separated only by a layer of connective or cartilaginous tissue. Examples: the skull (suture), teeth and jaw, tibia and fibula joint.
  • Amphiarthrosis: They are semi-mobile , flexible and cartilaginous joints . They have cartilage between the bones and allow movements that prevent excessive wear of the bones, thus helping to slide one over the other from the different movements of the body. Examples: hip bones and vertebrae.
  • Diarthrosis: They are flexible joints , characterized by the presence of synovial bags, which contain synovial fluid or synovia, which prevents the wear caused by friction. They are located between the skin and the bones. Examples: shoulder joints, knees and elbows.

See also: Cartilage

Joint elements

Elements that are part of the articulation

The movement of the body is produced from the communication between the ends of the involved bones, carried out by the synovial joints.

Synovial bags act as shock absorbers in moving joints. The synovial fluid is viscous, transparent and facilitates the movement between two bony parts.

With aging, the production of this liquid decreases, causing pain in the joints.

For that, check below some elements that are part of the joints:

  • the articular cartilage(elastic connective tissue);
  • the ligaments(fibrous structures);
  • to articular capsule(fibrous membrane);
  • the synovial membrane(bag with synovial fluid);
  • the menisci(knee joint structure).

See also: Connective Tissue

Main Joints and Movements

Get to know some of the main joints of the human body and the movement they perform.

Skull Joints

Some of the skull sutures

The skull bones are connected in a way that does not allow movement. It is formed by fixed joints or sutures, characterizing synarthrosis.

Another example is the joint between the ribs and the sternum bone, the movement hardly occurs.

See also: Skull bones

Shoulder Joints

The shoulder joint may suffer dislocation

The shoulder joints are Glenoumeral, Acromio-clavicular and Sternoclavicular. Together, they allow the movements of sliding, adduction and abduction, flexion and extension, rotation and circumference.

It is common to experience dislocations in the shoulder, which is when he dislocates. The most common cause is during the practice of certain sports, such as swimming, basketball and volleyball, or due to an accident.

See also: Appendicular skeleton

Elbow Joints

The elbow joints are responsible for the movement of the forearm.

The elbow joints are: humerus-ulnar, humerus-radial and radius-ulnar proximal. They enable flexion and extension movements.

It makes the connection between the arm and the forearm, being fundamental for its movement because it works as a kind of hinge.

See also: Tendon

Wrist and Hand Joints

Hand joints allow finger movement

The joints of the wrist and hand are: distal radio-ulnar, radiocarpal, carpometacarpal, metacarpal and interphalangeal.

They allow adduction, abduction, flexion, extension and sliding movements. Together, they are responsible for the movement of the wrist and fingers.

See also: Hand Bones

Hip Joints

The hip joints are responsible for several movements

The hip joints are: Sacroiliac and Coxofemoral. The sacroiliac joint only performs the sliding movement.

The movements performed by the hip are abduction and adduction, flexion and extension, rotation and circumference.

 

Knee Joints

The knee joint has elements that help stabilize the body

The knee joints are: Patellofemoral, Tibio-femoral, Tibio-fibular. Together, they perform sliding, flexing and extension movements.

It is responsible for making the connection between the tibia and the femur, and also between the femur and the patella.

In addition, it acts on stabilization, biomechanics and impact absorption. In some cases, cartilage wear can occur and impair some movement.

See also: Locomotor System

Spinal Joints

Spine joints allow for various body movements

The spinal joints can be considered one of the most complex, as it is responsible for movements that are extremely important for day-to-day activities.

The movement between two vertebrae is considered small, but together they represent movements of great amplitude.

Do not forget that the muscles also play an important role in the movement of the body.

See also: Bones of the Human Body

Joint diseases

Arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis is one of the types of arthritis

Arthritis is characterized by inflammation of the joints . It is associated with excess body weight, repetitive work, old age, injuries, among others.

Symptoms caused by arthritis are: difficulty in moving the joints, pain, redness and swelling.

Some types of arthritis are: rheumatoid arthritis, gouty arthritis (gout), osteoarthritis (arthrosis), psoriatic arthritis, septic arthritis, among others.

See also: Human Skeleton

Arthrosis

Arthrosis is a degenerative disease that affects people of advanced age

Arthrosis or osteoarthritis is a chronic disease that affects the bones and cartilage of the body. It is most common to develop in the joints of the hands, wrists, shoulders, elbows, knee and feet.

It is a type of degenerative arthritis, which usually occurs in overweight people, old age, manual workers, being more common in women.

See also: Degenerative Diseases

Curiosities about the joints

  • Arthrology is the science that studies joints.
  • Rheumatism is a set of diseases related to the skeleton, muscles and joints. For example, gout, fibromyalgia, arthritis, arthrosis, osteoporosis, lupus, among others.

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