Homo Georgicus , nicknamed hobbit , is an extinct species of the genus Homo that inhabited Georgia approximately 1.8 million years ago. It is a species of hominid established in 2002 from fossils found a year earlier in Dmanisi , in the Caucasus, Republic of Georgia . Initially it considered intermediate between habilis and the Homo erectus , and related Homo ergaster .
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- 1 Discovery
- 2 Lithic tools
- 3 The departure from Africa
- 4 Sources
In 1991 Atje Justus found in the excavations of the medieval village of Dmanisi , Georgia , the mandible D 211 dated at 1.8-1.7 Ma. With 16 teeth, only the two ascending branches are missing. Massive appearance and narrow shape, strong reduction of retromolar space and absence of chin.
Comparison of several specimens of erectus and georgicus
In 1999 they found: The calota complete D 2280. It preserves part of the basal region of the skull with basal and nuchal parts of the occipital slightly damaged, parts of the large wing of the sphenoid and most mandibular temporal fossa . Giorgy Nioradze found skull D 2282, shell and maxillary fragment . Deformed. The maxillary teeth retain slightly worn and alveoli of teeth that are visible on x – ray. Possibly it belonged to a young female.
Dmanisi jaws. D 211, D 2600 and D 2735.
In 2001 the skull D 2700 appeared in an extraordinary state of preservation and the mandible D 2735, complete, which fits into the anterior skull, which belonged to a sub-adult male. Small skull, within the range of habilis . Low and concave face, with prominent canines and marked prognathism. Large canines. Large, paddle-shaped incisors. Large and prominent canines.
Sts 5, Australopithecus africanus and D 3444, Homo georgicus
In 2002 Slava Ediberidze found the skull and jaw associated with the Olduvian industry .
Much of a skeleton was first found. Later there have been three other findings, including a complete skull (but without teeth, only with the left canine) and in addition, they have been found associated with the bones, stone and percussion artifacts , which allowed this species to hunt, kill animals and process them. The condition of hunter and not of scavenger or simple gatherer and consumer of soft vegetable food of Homo georgicushas been established. The Dmanisi hominid consumed meat, and this product may have been the key to the survival of this species and of other hominids living in high latitudes, especially in winter. (Lordkipanidze, D.). The five individuals in the Dmanisi reportedly formed a family that was engulfed in a volcanic eruption that forced them to penetrate the shelter, and then died of suffocation from the volcanic ash. That is the explanation that emerges from the study of the strata, and the reason why in this exceptional case a large number of fossils were found together that were of such varied ages.
In 2003, a jaw was found that was called the Old Man of Dmanisi , since it belonged to an old man (40-50 years old) who had lost all his teeth a long time ago, so it must have been fed by other humans.
In 2005 a Skull was found that has turned out to correspond to the same individual. This combination unheard of mixes a small brain (546 cc) with a very prognostic face and exhibits morphological affinities with the early Homo of Africa . This individual would be a male measuring between 1.40 and 1.60 m and weighing around 50 kg. When he died he must have been about 30 years old.
In 2011 a toe bone was found.
In addition, a femur, a fibula, several tibias, vertebrae, ribs and various bones of the hand and foot have been found. The proportions between the arms and legs are clearly modern. The foot shows a well-developed arch, with the big toe in a parallel position. The maximum weight would be 50 kg and the maximum height 1.50 m. The palms of the hands were facing forward, which is interpreted as an adaptation to arboreal life.
2,241 lithic objects, larger than 2 Ma, have been found. The Dmanisi hominins mainly exploited local rocks, especially those from river beds. Boulders and angled blocks of basalt, andesite and tuff formed part of the main supports used. Much of them were not modified. 82.7% correspond to positive bases or flakes, of which only 4.5% of the total correspond to small format retouched objects. 33.2% of flakes are cortical. The cores represent 4.3% of the total and the choppers and chopping-tools 10.4%.
Petrographic analyzes show that certain materials were transferred to the deposit itself, which indicates a certain complexity in the process of acquiring raw materials. The carving is completely conditioned by the natural geometry of the supports, often orthogonal with very high percussion angles, although there is a certain diversity of carving systems. The nuclei, flakes and debrises present also demonstrate that the entire reduction process was carried out on the same site. Numerous unifacial nuclei suggest that it was not a “too elaborate” size. Centripetal carving is also documented in some nuclei on flake (cores). Without biface. Absolute predominance of flakes over tools. The site is comparable to Bed I of Olduvai or Atapuerca.
The climate of Dmanisi, by then, must have been moderately arid, with high mountains furrowed by deep valleys and rugged rivers, with open landscapes of warm steppe on the surrounding plains furrowed by gallery-forests in the valleys. Consequently, the Dmanisi hominids had at their disposal a considerable diversity of habitats.
The departure from Africa
The same climatic crisis that led to the appearance of the ergaster forced the habilis and other similar beings to migrate following the forest masses. Some populations probably arrived in Central Africa , where tropical forests still exist today. The tropical forest is not conducive to fossil conservation. Other populations headed north, following the banks of the Nile and the Red Sea, and found an ideal habitat in the Caucasus .