Fertilizer system and its components
High efficiency of fertilizer system is ensured only when they are applied, taking into account specific soil-climatic conditions, feeding habits of individual crops and their alternation in crop rotation, agricultural practices, properties of fertilizers and many other factors.
The fertilizer system is a complex of organizational, agrotechnical and agrochemical measures aimed at the rational use of organic and mineral fertilizers in order to increase the yield, its quality and the reproduction of soil fertility.
The purpose of the fertilizer system (SU) is to meet the needs of plants in the mineral nutrition elements for the planned yield while ensuring the highest possible agroeconomic efficiency and environmental safety of using the available natural and economic resources (soils, fertilizers, ameliorates, crops, varieties, machinery, etc.). ) each household.
The main tasks of the fertilizer system:
- – improving the productivity of cultivated crops and soil fertility;
- – recycling of animal and plant waste;
- – elimination of differences (equalization) in the fertility of individual fields and plots with simultaneous optimization of agrochemical indicators of the soil in accordance with the requirements of the cultivated crops;
- – increasing the payback of fertilizers and ameliorants by increasing yields of cultivated crops at any fertilizer supply, up to the maximum possible;
- – the constant observance of the ever-increasing requirements for the protection of the environment from pollution by means of chemicalization of agriculture.
The fertilizer system includes 2 stages. The first stage includes the development and implementation of organizational and economic measures related to the production, harvesting, procurement, transportation and storage of fertilizers.
The second stage is the rational distribution of fertilizers in crop rotations and within them for different crops. The components of the SU are as follows:
- – scientific and organizational system for the use of fertilizers in the economy;
- – the system of fertilizer application in crop rotation, as the most important link in the agrolandscape farming system;
- – fertilizer system of individual crops of crop rotation, composed of optimal doses, forms, terms and methods of fertilizer application.
The system of fertilizers in the farm is a complex providing:
– mechanized storage facilities for proper
storage of mineral fertilizers;
- – accumulation and proper storage of organic fertilizers;
- – availability of vehicles for transportation of fertilizers;
- – a complex for the application of mineral and organic fertilizers;
- – liming sour and gypsum solonts soils.
The fertilizer system in crop rotation is part of the overall fertilizer system on the farm. Under it understand the distribution of organic and mineral fertilizers, chemical ameliorants and other fertilizers for crop rotation. At this stage, doses, terms and methods of fertilizing for individual crops are taken into account, taking into account the planned yield, physiological characteristics of crop nutrition and their alternation, cultivation technology, soil-climatic and hydraulic conditions, properties of fertilizers, and economic conditions of the farm.
The fertilizer system of a separate crop is a plan for the distribution of mineral and organic fertilizers, chemical ameliorants and other fertilizing agents across the fields to ensure a high agroeconomic effect based on the systematic growth of soil fertility, obtaining high quality agricultural products and protecting the environment from pollution. The fertilizer system of a particular crop is inextricably linked to the fertilizer system in the crop rotation.