Exodus . It means departure or emigration from a town or a crowd of people. This historical fact is included in the second book of the Bible and the Torah, the Pentateuch , the Tanach (the Hebrew Bible ), and the Christian Old Testament , it was led by Moses , liberator, leader and legislator of Israel appointed by God so that guide the Israelite people in their departure and liberation from the slavery to which they were subjected in Egypt .
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- 1 Purposes of the Exodus
- 2 Translation of Exodus
- 3 History
- 4 Importance
- 5 Chronology
- 1 Route after Egypt
- 6 Religious sense
- 7 See also
- 8 Sources
Purposes of the Exodus
The Exodus is but the work of God through the person of Moses to bring his people Israel out of the land of servitude to possess the land that he had promised Abraham some 600 years ago. So its main purpose was the departure from Egypt by the people of God and thus conquer the Promised Land ( Canaan ), encouraging Israel to become aware of its ethnic, cultural and religious unity for the first time, in addition to keeping alive in the memory of the Hebrew people the foundational fact of itself as a nation.
- The Jews call the book by its second words: Ve-eleh shemoth (ie, “and these are the names”) or simply Shemoth (in Hebrew, שמות, “names”).
- The Septuagint is titled Exoduswhich means “departure”.
- The name was adopted in the Latin translation , with the different transformations in the spelling according to each language. As a result, the term “exodus” means “departure”, it refers to the departure of the people of Israel from Egypt .
This fact is not considered a war, diplomatic or political fact, but it deals with religious faith and culture, in addition to the history of a people who, guided by God, manages to free themselves from slavery. The well-known 10 Plagues of Egypt, where the power and authority of God was shown above what little the Egyptian priests could do, remained as relevant and for later . Being the most relevant the death of the firstborn, because there not only showed the power and authority of God but the faith of those who did what God intended through Moses.
- Liberation from slavery in Egypt
- The establishment of the covenant between God and the Israelites at Sinai has been a unique and decisive event in the evolution of Judaism and Jewish history.
- Proclamation of this people as a “holy nation” words spoken by God at Sinai.
The duration of this event was 40 years from the day the Hebrew people of Egypt were liberated until their arrival in the promised land.
The dates of the events that occurred are difficult to specify according to the Gregorian calendar . Correct identification of the Pharaoh mentioned in the Exodus is supposed to be the key to establishing the correct chronology, but the Bible does not clearly identify the reigning Pharaoh at the time of the Exodus.
Although the Bible does not quote the Pharaoh of the Exodus by name, it does give the exact date of the Exodus. 1Kings 6: 1 reads that Solomon began building the Temple in the fourth year of his reign, 480 years after the children of Israel left Egypt. Most Bible scholars estimate that the fourth year of Solomon’s reign was 967 B.C. C . Then the date of Exodus was 1447 BC. C . (967 + 480), when Tuthmosis III ruled, but there is no document or Egyptian archaeological remains that confirm this event.
Route after Egypt
The Egyptian city from which they leave is Rameses , heading around 600,000 Hebrews and an undetermined number of non-Hebrew people towards Sukkot .
- After the Red Sea , the Hebrews entered the desert of Shur or Etam and three days later they reached Mara, from Mara they moved to Elim, an oasis of twelve water sources, from this place they entered the desert of Sin in the direction at the Mount Sinai bordering the Red Sea; Two months had already passed since the departure from Egypt. Here is verified the manna event provided by God.
- Already in the Sin desert, the congregation moved from locations such as Dofca, Alús and in Refidim in Horeben the desert of Parán, a place without water, there they fought for the first time as a people against the Amalekites defeating them (Exodus 17:13). In this place, Moses strikes a rock with his stick and drinking water gushes out.
- From Refidim, the Hebrew people entered the Sinai desert and camped in the contour of either Mount Sinai or Mount Horeb 90 days after leaving Egypt, and it is the place where Moses received the Ten Commandments or Decalogue, also the Aaron or Levitical priesthood, the first civil and religious laws in the Jewish people, additionally the first Tabernacle, the Ark of the Covenant, was built. (Exodus 25:10). In this place they stayed two years and two months and when they left Sinai, the Jewish people were governed in all legal, civil, moral and religious aspects. (Exodus 10:11).
- From Sinai they left for the Parán desert and lived in Kibrot-hataava (Exodus 11:35) to move to Hazerot in the middle of the desert. From this place, Moses assigns twelve spies to recognize the land of Canaan (Exodus 13) from Mount Negev in the desert of the same name. Meanwhile, the congregation advances to Ritma and from there to Rimón-peres. The recognized land of Canaan was inhabited by Jebusites, Anacites, Amalekites, Amorites, and Canaanites.
- In this place they were condemned by God to forty years in the Negev desert. Israel tries to rebel against the sentence in the desert but they are defeated by the Amorites led by the king of Edom and they are forced to stay between Kadesh, the Moab desert and the Negev and they remain there for almost 40 years.
- When 38 years were completed, and the entire adult generation had died, the preceding generation was finally able to enter Canaan with Joshua as their leader (Deuteronomy 2: 14-24). Moses is not authorized to enter Canaan and is only allowed to observe the land of inheritance from Mount Pisgah or Nebo (Deut. 3:27 / Deut. 32: 48-52) to perish on the same hill and be buried in Moab.
- There are two fundamental facts in the history of Israel: the departure from Egypt and the revelation of Mount Sinai, and both are narrated in the Exodus.
- The miracle of liberation demonstrates and confirms God’s choice of the Jewish people.
- For Christians, the celebration of the first Easter prepares the way for the Christian Resurrection and the formation of the People of God is the antecedent of the Church as an assembly and gathering of the faithful through the liturgy.