Ernst Junger

Ernst Jünger Heidelberg. German writer, philosopher, novelist, and historian.

Summary

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  • 1 Biographical synthesis
    • 1 Studies carried out
      • 1.1 Literary theme
    • 2 Death
  • 2 Works
  • 3 Bibliography
  • 4 Source

Biographical synthesis

He was born on 29 of March of 1895 in a bourgeois family in Heidelberg, Germany. He was the son of Dr. Ernst George Jünger, professor of chemistry, and Lily Karoline.

He received a humanistic education but loaded with nationalist and Prussian overtones, which made him an intolerant and radical teenager. He studied in boarding schools and colleges in Hannover, Schwarzenberg, Braunschweig, Wunstdorf or Hamelin.

When he was 16 years old he joined the Wandervögel, in 1911 , a youthful current that maintained radical principles, later embraced by the hippie current, pondered the spirit of nature and the search for forests, as well as absolute respect for the animal life. Also, unlike the latter, he painted his ideology of a glorification of the German nation.

He joined the French Foreign Legion in 1913, traveled to Africa at the beginning of the century. That experience marked him forever, inciting in him a great enthusiasm for war. When World War I broke out, Jünger was among the first to sign up, achieving in 1918 , just weeks before the end of the war, the Pour le Mérite award, also known as the Blauer Max for combatant bravery.

His first literary works date from that period: Tempestades de Acero , a newspaper written on the French front that constitutes a document of frightening lucidity about the great European conflagration, which launched the young writer to fame.

Applied studies

Between 1923-1925, he studied Zoology at the University of Leipzig and Oriental Naples. It had one of the largest collections of insects in the world and a few dozen hourglasses and thousands of old books

Jünger was part of a complicated political-cultural current called Konservative Revolution , which included, in addition to other groups, authors such as Ernst Von Salomon , Werner Sombart , Carl Schmitt and Oswald Spengler . Some of the most important characteristics that defined this trend were its radical nationalism, its rejection of nineteenth-century liberalism, or the French Revolution . While here, he published books such as War as an inner experience , The general mobilization or The worker .

The perceptible tone of Jünger’s work in this period, the “elitist” nuance of his work, the absence of anti-Semitism, led Jünger to oppose National Socialism in 1933 , by not accepting entry into the German Poetry Academy, purged A short time by the Gestapo, and he went to the village, Goslar, in the Harz Mountains; later he resided in Ueberlingen.

In 1934 he opposed the use and manipulation of his writings in the Nazi party newspaper, further refusing to occupy a seat in the Reichstag, while publishing Blaetter und Steine (Leaves and Stones), his first criticism of fascist racism.

He traveled to Norway, in 1935 , in 1936 to Brazil, the Canary Islands and Morocco, in 1937 to Paris, where he met André Gide and Julien Green and in 1939 he moved to Kirchhorst, in Lower Saxony.

He participated in World War II as a military man in occupied Paris , where from 1941 he visited the literary and smoking rooms of opium, as well as the Parisian bohemia, allowed himself to be invited by the officers who were beginning to rebel against Hitler and saved his life. as many retaliated Jews as possible.

Jünger wrote in his diary, learning of the progressive extermination of the Jews:

The uniform, the decorations and the brilliance of the weapons, which I have loved so much, disgust me

In 1942 he was brought to the Russian front, and in 1944 , after the unsuccessful attack against Hitler, whom he named in his notes Kniebolo, in which he participated, he resigned from his position in the army.

During the postwar period, his books were banned until 1949, despite which he managed to publish Der Friede (Peace) in 1946 in Amsterdam , in 1947 Atlantische Fahrt (Atlantic Voyage) and a year later Aus der goldenen Muschel (The Golden Shell) . Opposition to his publications in 1949 arises from Jünger’s refusal to comply with a form on denazification in the British occupation zone. This refusal led him to move to Ravensburg, in the French occupation zone.

In the 1950s he became friends with Albert Hofmann , the author of LSD, several of Jünger’s books dealt directly or indirectly with the psychedelic experience. In 1952 , after his first experience with LSD, he wrote Besuch auf Godenholm (Visit to Godenholm), whose publication coincided with the appearance of Aldous Halley’s Gates of Perception . In 1959, he was awarded the Federal Merit Cross, together with the painter Otto Dix .

His other great book on the subject of drugs is Annäherungen. Drogen und Rausch (Close-ups. Drugs and drunkenness), 1970 . This work, in which the author coined the term psychonauts navigating the psyche, exposes Jünger’s numerous experiences with various types of psychoactive substances, both entheogenic and stimulant or opioid.

Towards 1977 writes another of his best – known works, Eumeswil, where stands the figure of the anarch , character preconfigured by Albert Camus in his book L’homme révolté (The Rebel), 1951 . He received the Goethe Prize in 1982 .

Literary theme

His literary theme is very broad since within his genres are the novel, various essays and several personal diaries of the Second World War that are also of great historical and literary value today, his work is considered one of the greatest contributions to German-language literature of the 20th century .

Death

He died the 17 of February of 1998 , two weeks shy of his 103 – year-old, one after months of being converted to the Catholic faith.

 

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