Electric shock. Electric discharges are caused by the upward movement of air , within clouds of the cumulus cloud type, where the excessive concentration of negative and positive electric charges gives rise to the electric discharge in the form of a spark, which can occur in a cloud, between two , or between it and the ground. They are classified into four types:
- Zig Zag,
- Rosary beads.
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- 1 Types of lightning
- 1 Zigzag
- 2 Diffuse
- 3 Ball or spherical
- 4 In rosary
- 2 Effects of lightning
- 1 Mechanics
- 2 Physicists
- 3 Chemicals
- 4 Physiological
- 3 Effective protector
- 4 Some precautionary measures
- 5 Source
They are sinuous, irregular and shiny. Its irregularity is given by the variable conductivity in the various parts of the air , clouds , ionization and pollutants.
They cause general lighting, with those with well-defined contours.
Ball or spherical
They are shaped like a fire balloon , shiny and of various colors. Its dimensions range between 25 or 65 cm. and they move slowly; they arise with or without a storm , and disappear silently or amid a great outbreak. They are more frequent in extratropical areas.
A series of luminous globes appear, distanced from each other regularly and arranged in a line that crosses the horizon.
They destroy buildings and objects that are bad conductors of electricity , and others that can also be thrown at a distance. They inflate and melt materials of various kinds.
They magnetize metal objects . The intensity of the discharges can reach 20,000 amps.
They transform oxygen into ozone , with a classic strong smell, supposedly to sulfur . They cause the partial combination of nitrogen in the air with oxygen, forming nitrogenous compounds. Sometimes, they cause the release of harmful dust and gases to man .
They are the most damaging for causing death and permanent damage. Some victims have no traces of impact, but the autopsy reveals internal bleeding and brain congestion.
The lightning rod is the most effective means to protect buildings and equipment from the destructive action of lightning , although it does not prevent electric shock, it channels it. Facilities should be checked frequently, especially before storms . The distance between two lightning rods will not exceed 20 m, since the area they protect does not go beyond 16 m from the vertical.
This device protects the building and the equipment that have connection to the outside, such as electrical and heating. If they are poorly installed, they are more harmful than useful. High buildings, fuel tanks , electrical complexes, explosives warehouses, cosmodromes and sites with some danger, are specially protected with lightning rods.
The aircraft , which often pass through areas storms are also protected against electric shock. Even so, in some cases they suffer breakdowns and can even be knocked down.