There are different types of water in the world: some that cannot be used by humans for causing disease and others that even have medicinal power.When we talk about water , we immediately imagine the one that comes out of our taps. However, different types of this substance are part of our daily lives and can be used for a variety of purposes, with some even having therapeutic properties.
We usually classify water primarily based on the salinity criterion . According to this classification, we have salt, brackish and fresh water. The salt water is the most common type in the world, representing approximately 97.5% of the existing water. It has a high content of dissolved salts and a salinity of 30% or more. It is found in seas and oceans around the planet.
The brackish water is one that does not have such a high salinity as salt water, but does not have such a low amount as fresh water. This type of water has a salinity greater than 0.5% and less than 30.5%, being, therefore, an intermediate form. It is found mainly in lagoons, estuaries and mangrove areas.
The fresh water is used that the population and has low salinity which is lower than or equal to 0.5%. This type of water represents only 2.5% of the total water on the planet and is found in lakes, rivers and groundwater.
Water can also be classified according to its quality . We call drinking water that can be consumed by humans. It lacks color, odor and taste, as well as microorganisms and substances that can trigger health problems in the population.
The mineral water is a type of drinking water having at least 500 mg per liter and mineral substances beneficial to health. It is groundwater located at a relatively high depth and therefore free of polluters. According to its chemical composition, it is classified into, for example, sulphated, sulphurous, nitrated, chlorinated, ferruginous and radioactive.
Some waters, however, contain substances that alter their physical, chemical and biological characteristics, making them unfit for consumption. The water that shows these changes is called polluted . Polluted water can also be called contaminated when it contains pathogenic substances.
There are also some types of water that are created in the laboratory for use in processes that require purity. The distilled water , which is one of these waters is fabricated from a distillation process in which all are removed minerals and any dissolved substance. It is considered pure water and is used in cleaning laboratory equipment, in research, in the manufacture of medicines and even in car batteries.
Another type of water produced in the laboratory is deionized water , which differs from distilled water in that it not only contains dissolved ionic substances, but also molecular substances. This water is obtained through the processes of ion exchange and reverse osmosis.