Cystoscope

Cystoscope. A device that consists of a tube with a camera that allows the doctor to view and explore the inner surface of the urinary bladder and urethra and is used for examinations, biopsies, and surgery .

Summary

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  • 1 Features
  • 2 types
  • 3 Use
  • 4 Cystoscope optics
  • 5 See also
  • 6 Sources

characteristics

Tubular instrument used to visualize the inside of the bladder, in an invasive procedure called cystoscopy . It consists of a tube with a camera that allows the doctor to visualize and explore the inner surface of the urinary bladder and urethra and is used for examinations, biopsies, and surgery.

Types

Rigid cystoscope

There are rigid and flexible cystoscopes, and both have the same goal, which is to visualize the inside of the bladder and the urethra .

Flexible cystoscope

  • Rigid cystoscope: It is equipped with a light emitter (to illuminate the inside of the bladder) and a microcamera. It has a wide channel through which devices (foreign body forceps, biopsy forceps, introduction of probes or catheters, electrocautery, laser fiber, etc.) can be inserted for the removal of kidney stonesand / or tumor removal. , and even allows the insertion of stents to facilitate the passage of urine . It is the device of choice when extensive biopsies are to be performed, although it has the drawback of requiring local or, in some cases, general administration.
  • Flexible cystoscope: Also equipped with a light emitter and a microcamera, this cystoscope is the most widely used due to its greater manageability. It is made of fiber optics, which facilitates its passage through the curves of the urethra. It does not require anesthesia and is more indicated for diagnosis, since its channel is narrower and does not allow the use of devices. It is mainly used for the diagnosis and monitoring of bladdertumors .

Use

The way to insert the cystoscope varies, but the examination is the same. The choice of the type of cystoscope the doctor uses depends on the purpose of the test. The procedure generally takes 5 to 20 minutes. The urethra is washed and an anesthetic is applied to the skin that covers it inside, without using a needle. The cystoscope is then inserted through the urethra into the bladder.

Through the cystoscope, water or saline is flushed to fill the bladder. As this happens, you will be asked to describe the sensation, and your response will reveal information about your condition.

Cystoscope optics

The optic of the cystoscope is nothing more than a periscope, in whose constitution it enters: an objective lens, a prism, one or more intermediate lenses to collect and straighten the images and another ocular lens. Introduced the optical system in the piece of illumination as a fastener of a trocar, the objective must appear through the window located behind the elbow of the crutch.

The entire apparatus is thus constituted, in which the clamp is added, which connects the cystoscope with the electrical spring.

The incandescence of the lamp is provided by any of these means; an immersion cell or wet cell, a dry cell, an accumulator or the current of the general installation modified in intensity by a rheostat, in the case of direct current; or modified in its form, by a transformer for alternating current.

 

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