Cyrillic alphabet . Invented in the 10th century by a missionary from the Byzantine Empire to the First Bulgarian Empire, possibly Saint Clement of Ohrid. This alphabet is based on the Greek alphabet with characters from the Glagolitic alphabet by exclusively Slavic sounds, invented by the saints Cyril and Methodius, missionaries of the Byzantine Empire, who implemented it to translate the Bible in the cultural context of the Slavic peoples in the 9th century . The language of this Bible is Old Church Slavonic, based on a Slavic dialect learned in Thessalonica, Greece. This language was used by the Russian Orthodox Church between the 9th and 12th centuries. In the 14th century, the Church Slavic emerged, used today in worship.
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- 1 History of the Cyrillic alphabet
- 2 Diacritical signs
- 3 punctuation marks
- 4 Cyrillic review
- 5 Current form
- 6 Source
History of the Cyrillic alphabet
Saint Cyril and his brother Methodius, missionaries in Byzantium, were royally commissioned to create a new alphabet based on Greek script, but with the inclusion of additional letters borrowed from the Glagolitic alphabet to create new sounds that were not in Greek. Cyrillic was first written in the Middle Ages in large, clear letters, and without distinction between upper and lower case. In the 12th century, its popularity surpassed that of the Glagolitic, which was the set of characters that had dominated in the Balkans. When Christianity was established as the official state religion in 864, the Knyaz (prince) Boris I undertook the creation of the alphabet. Clemente de Ohrid developed the alphabet and named it after his teacher, Saint Cyril. Saint Cyril was a missionary who, along with his brother Methodius, He is considered the inventor of the Glagolitic alphabet, a primitive Slavic alphabet. The Cyrillic alphabet is based primarily on the Greek and Hebrew alphabets, and influenced by the Glagolitic. Since its inception, the Cyrillic alphabet has adapted to changes in spoken language, has developed regional variations to suit the local language, and has undergone academic reforms and policy decrees. Variants of the Cyrillic alphabet are used to write in languages of Eastern Europe and Asia. It has developed regional variations to suit the local language, and has undergone academic reforms and political decrees. Variants of the Cyrillic alphabet are used to write in languages of Eastern Europe and Asia. It has developed regional variations to suit the local language, and has undergone academic reforms and political decrees. Variants of the Cyrillic alphabet are used to write in languages of Eastern Europe and Asia.
Various diacritical marks were also used, adopted from the Greek polytonic system (these diacritics may not appear correctly in all Internet browsers; they must be directly above the letter, not at the top right):
- а́ oksia (acute accent), indicating the tonic syllable (Unicode U + 0341)
- а̀ varies (grave accent), indicating that the tonic syllable is the last (U + 0340)
- а҄ kamora, indicating palatalization (U + 0484), similar to a brief invert
- а҅ dasy pneuma, approximate respiration mark (U + 0485)
- а҆ zvatel’tse, or psilon pneuma, soft breath mark (U + 0486)
- а҃ titlo, indicating abbreviations, or letters used as numerals (U + 0483)
- ӓ trema, umlaut (U + 0308)
- а҆́ Combination of zvatel’tse with oksia called iso.
- а҆̀ Combination of zvatel’tse with several called apostrophes.
- Midpoint (U + 0387), used to separate words
- , comma (U + 002C)
- . point (U + 002E)
- : Armenian dot (U + 0589), similar to the colon
- ჻ Georgian paragraph separator (U + 10FB)
- .: three points in triangle (U + 2056, added in Unicode 4.1)
- :: four points in rhombus (U + 2058, added in Unicode 4.1)
- :.: five points (U + 2059, added in Unicode 4.1)
- ; Greek question mark (U + 037E), similar to the semicolon
- ! exclamation (U + 0021)
The Cyrillic alphabet was revised in 1708, during the reign of Peter the Great, to include cursive forms and to differentiate between capital and lowercase letters, reflecting the Europeanization of Russia at the time. The alphabet was regularized and the letters that appeared only in Greek were eliminated. Since then, the Cyrillic alphabet has undergone various reforms to incorporate changes in spoken language, regional variations, and academic revisions.
In 1918, the Bolsheviks seized Russia, and the Cyrillic alphabet was simplified. Today, it is made up of 33 letters, including 10 vowels, 21 consonants, and two letters that do not represent sounds. As a result of the reforms, today’s Russian is spelled phonetically. Currently, there are three main variants of the Cyrillic alphabet: Bulgarian, Macedonian, and Serbian. After the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991, this alphabet ceded its official status to the Latin alphabet