The culinary or culinary arts is a creative way of preparing food and much depends on the culture , in terms of knowledge about food, how they prepare, as well as the social rituals established around the food . It should not be confused with gastronomy , which would encompass it in a more general field dedicated to everything related to food.
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- 1 Origins
- 2 Food
- 1 Needs
- 3 Variety in culinary art
- 1 Favors
- 2 Preparation of meals
- 4 Source
There is a characteristic culinary art in each town , culture and region . Today with the phenomenon of globalization , with the continuous communication of millions of people and the influence of the media , as well as trade, have led to a greater knowledge and appreciation of foreign cuisines, and greater ease of access. to your preparation. However, a vast majority of these recipes and their variations have their origins in traditional cuisines developed over a long time, with preparation rituals passed down through many generations.
The kitchen traditional art is fundamentally social, local character and traditional, but modern society has managed to facilitate their development, supported by the easy acquisition of raw materials that are grown, sometimes thousands of kilometers away. It is important, in modern cuisine, this base of different ethnic and cultural origins .
Eating consists of satisfying the body’s needs in water, proteins , lipids , carbohydrates , vitamins and trace elements , to ensure the growth and maintenance of the body according to age, sex and degree of physical or mental activity. Food supplies, but in an unbalanced way in relation to needs, the proteins, lipids and carbohydrates that constitute a source of energy and necessary molecules for the human body, as well as vitamins and other elements. As a result, only the association, balanced of foods of different nutritional types, ensures the contributions of essential elements.
Babies and infants need vitamin D , which would have to be provided by food, but as it is in low availability in the daily portion, they are often given vitamin supplements. Similarly, women need 77% more iron than men for menstrual or postpartum losses, as well as more calcium at menopause, to avoid as much as possible the appearance of osteoporosis .
Similarly, the water ration varies in the same way as the energy contributions. One quarter of the extracellular water storage is renewed daily in babies and only one seventh in adults.
Variety in culinary art
This includes the variety of typical products of an area, the way they are cooked, the presentation of food, photography, hotels, restaurants, and much more.
In relation to hotels and restaurants, culinary art generates an impression on customers or diners, since the dishes of the selection or menu are expected to be prepared according to high quality standards, with all the precautions that govern the rules. hygiene and food handling, and with decorations to make each type of dish more attractive.
Regarding the services offered by a hotel restaurant or as an independent establishment, these should be directed by professionals in the culinary arts: chefs or cooks who have the proper knowledge of their area, to direct, train and even help prepare the dishes. to the kitchen staff.
- To promote digestion, it is cooked.
- To try to guarantee the health of consumers, varied foods are transformed and associated.
- To supply variable content and elements according to the needs of each individual.
- To be able to propose specific nutritional regimes depending on each disease.
The type of cuisine depends, on the cook , on the ingredients and on the cultural, ethical, medical or religious customs or obligations for a specific food. It is said then, that some foods (almost all) must go through a process called cooking, which is the application of heat or other techniques to preserve and modify their flavor, color and texture; in this way they will be fit for human consumption.
For a food to be an integral part of the diet, it must be readily available, in a quantity adapted to human needs and, if possible, at a good price.
As man is nourished, not only to ensure his growth and development but also for pleasure, food will often have to have taste qualities, which change according to society. Eating is also a social act, some people try not to eat certain foods due to their devaluing image (rapeseed oil after the First World War), they look for rarer and more expensive ones (foie-gras or caviar) or they rival of imagination to prepare a dish in a complex, appetizing and visually satisfying way.
The kitchen is also the support and manifestation of some religious and even political position. Thus, some cultural customs or some religions have placed taboos on certain foods or preparations.
The foods and methods of preparation chosen depend on the principles of each consumer. Searching for food with a quality label or Designation of Origin, organic farming, or refusing to eat food of animal origin ( vegetarians , for example) often comes from an ethical choice , as does the desire for non-violence to animals, or to not impose such a large impact on the biosphere (from an energy point of view, the production of 1 kilo of animal protein is more expensive than the same amount of plant protein). These positions are highly defended by environmentalists , see also macrobiotics .
The initial choice of food depends on multiple variables: before, the first factor was that of availability, for example, mammoth meat in an eco-region in northern Europe or the collection periods of agri-food . Food customs and techniques were formed around these favorable periods and the availability of fuels ( wood , coal ).
Now, for most of humanity, the food used, more or less varied, comes from orchards and greenhouses, according to the biodiversity of each region. In industrialized countries they are bought in nearby shops or supermarkets. We find unprocessed, partially or completely prepared foods ready for consumption. In this case the only thing that is needed is to heat it; if desired.
Thanks to the multiplication of exchanges between countries, you can find fruits and vegetables at all times of the year, something that was impossible before. This permanent availability of some foods has already changed eating behavior and numerous rituals. It has also been observed a progressive abandonment of the consumption of various foods, victims of the fashion phenomenon or simply forgotten by the agro-food industry.