Coronary cardiopathy. It is a narrowing of the small blood vessels that supply blood and oxygen to the heart . This is generally caused by a condition called atherosclerosis , which occurs when fats accumulate on the walls of the arteries and reduce the space where blood has to circulate, causing the flow to slow down and even stop. . This disorder is also known as coronary artery disease.
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- 1 Risk factors
- 2 Factors that increase the risk of heart disease
- 3 Symptoms
- 4 Diagnosis of certainty
- 5 Exams applied to know with certainty
- 6 Treatment
- 7 Forecast
- 8 Prevention
- 9 Curiosity
- 10 References
- 11 Sources
- Age: The risk of heart disease increases with age.
- Sex: Men have a higher risk of heart disease than women who are still having their menstrual period. After menopause, the risk for women is close to the risk for men.
- Genes: If parents or other close relatives had heart disease, you are at increased risk.
- Race: African Americans, Mexican Americans, Native Americans, Hawaiians, and some Asian Americans are also at higher risk for heart problems.
Factors that increase the risk of heart disease
- Diabetes is a powerful risk factor for heart disease.
- High blood pressure increases the risk of heart disease and heart failure.
- Smokers have a much higher risk of heart disease.
- Chronic kidney disease can increase the risk.
- People with narrow arteries in another part of the body (examples are stroke and poor circulation to the legs) are more likely to have heart disease.
- Substance abuse (such as cocaine).
- Being overweight.
- Not exercising enough or feeling depressed or having excess stress are other risk factors
The classic symptom is angina, which patients refer to as discomfort, weight, or tightness in the central part of the chest , which can spread to other areas: to the throat and jaw, to the left arm, to the back, to the stomach. , which is triggered by physical effort and relieved by rest. The pain is intense and constant when an acute heart attack occurs ; in angina it is usually mild, intermittent and short-lived. The classic is oppressive pain in the central region of the chest, which can also be accompanied by sweating, nausea, vomiting and fatigue. A doctor should be contacted immediately if the pain is severe and is not relieved by rest, or for minor pain manifestations that have occurred in the past few days.
Diagnosis of certainty
The electrocardiogram is a fundamental tool, although there are others such as echocardiography , coronary angiography , and stress tests.
Exams applied to know with certainty
- Coronary angiography / arteriography: A non-aggressive procedure designed to evaluate the arteries of the heart using X-rays.
- Computed tomography angiography, a non-aggressive way to perform coronary angiography.
- Electrocardiography (ECG).
- Electron beam computed tomography (ECT) to look for calcium in the lining of the arteries; The more calcium there is, the higher the probability of having coronary heart disease.
- Exercise stress test.
- CT scan of the heart
- Magnetic resonance angiography
For acute infarction, it is the recanalization or unblocking of the coronary clot that is causing the infarction. When it’s mild, lifestyle changes and antiplatelet medications like aspirin .
It depends, first of all, on the age of the patient and the promptness with which they go to specialized services. Those who request care in the first three hours after the heart attack begins will have a greater chance of recovery.
It is essential to establish eating habits that include fibers, vegetables and fruits , with low fat content. Also keep a regular check on blood pressure and blood cholesterol. And do not smoke or drink alcoholic beverages excessively. Finally underline that a recent study shows that as exercise capacity increases, that is, physical fitness, the risk of death decreases in stages.
It is the first cause of death in Cuba, according to cardiologist Juan José Quirós Luis , coordinator of the Coronary Unit of the National Network of Cardiology and Cardiovascular Surgery. Who indicates that the alterations of the coronary arteries are also triggered by anatomical causes, rupture, embolism (sudden obstruction), inflammatory and immunological diseases and by functional causes such as spasm or microcirculation disorders, fundamentally.