Classification of nature management.There are several approaches to the classification of types of environmental management. According to one of them, the main types of environmental management traditionally include: resource, sectoral and territorial
Speaking of territorial environmental management, it should be noted that the individuality of natural complexes does not allow transferring the technology of environmental management, successfully used in one territory, to another. The integrity of the picture of nature management in the region is given by areal, network-node and linear forms. The latter are characteristic of transport-communication, water-reclamation, distributional activities, which combine the listed types of territorial structure into a single framework, give a special configuration to their spatial combinations
According to the Federal Law of May 7, 2001 No. 49-ФЗ “On the Territories of Traditional Nature Use of the Indigenous Minorities of the North, Siberia and the Far East of the Russian Federation”:
- – territories of traditional nature use– specially protected areas formed for the maintenance of traditional nature management and traditional way of life of indigenous peoples of the North, Siberia and the Danish East of the Russian Federation;
- – traditional nature management– historically established and ensuring sustainable use of natural resources for the use of flora and fauna objects, other natural resources by indigenous peoples of the North, Siberia and the Far East of the Russian Federation.
The goals of preserving traditional nature management and the aforementioned Law are:
- – protection of the original habitat and traditional lifestyle of small indigenous peoples;
- – preservation and development of the original culture of small nations;
- – preservation in the territories of traditional environmental management of biological diversity
he category of indigenous peoples of the North, Siberia and the Far East includes people of less than 50 thousand people living in the territories of the traditional settlement of their ancestors, preserving traditional lifestyles, economic activities and self-conscious ethnic communities.
According to the “Concept for the sustainable development of the indigenous peoples of the North, Siberia and the Far East of the Russian Federation” (approved by the order of the Government of the Russian Federation No. 132-p of February 4, 2009), 40 indigenous peoples of the North compactly live in 28 regions of the Russian Federation. The need to single out a separate type of traditional environmental management was caused by the intensive industrial development of the natural resources of the northern territories of the Russian Federation, which led to a decrease in the ability to conduct traditional economic activities of small peoples. Considerable areas of reindeer pastures and hunting grounds were removed from the traditional turnover. Some of the formerly used for traditional river and reservoir fisheries have lost their fisheries importance due to environmental problems.
According to the list of types of traditional economic activities , these include:
- – livestock, including nomadic (reindeer breeding, yak breeding, horse breeding, sheep breeding);
- – processing of animal products, including the collection, preparation and manufacture of hides, hair, ossified horns, hooves, antlers, etc .;
- – fisheries (including marine hunting) and the implementation of aquatic biological resources;
- – beekeeping, beekeeping, etc.
The list of types of traditional economic activities is approved by the Government of the Russian Federation.
The All-Russian Meeting Resolution Indigenous Peoples communities, Siberia and the Far East of the Russian Federation “The current state of traditional nature use and the development of indigenous peoples communities, Siberia and the Far East: the preservation or modernization” of 20 April 2015 proposed a set of measures to expand rights of indigenous peoples in the field of traditional environmental management , for example:
- – to carry out an inventory, land management work, an assessment of the natural resources of the traditional places of residence and traditional economic activities of indigenous minorities and put on record in the Federal Registration Service;
- – to free the communities of small indigenous peoples from the corresponding payment for objects of the animal world engaged in commercial hunting;
- – provide priority right to assign communities to hunting grounds, etc.
Describing modern nature management as an activity, its interdisciplinary nature should also be noted , which can be judged by:
- – on those factors that have a significant impact on him; attracting knowledge from various sciences to solve environmental problems, the vast majority of which are complex;
- – the nature of technological, technical, organizational, economic, legal and other, including international, mechanisms for solving problems of environmental management;
- – those methods that are included in the process of environmental management: forecasting, modeling, planning, monitoring, optimization.
The following factors exert a significant influence on the scale and processes of nature management:
- – an increase in the number of humanity, which means an increase in the number of consumers of natural resources;
- – the development of scientific and technological progress, and therefore, opportunities for the study of the properties, extraction and use of natural resources;
- – significant economic growth;
- – the increase in the number of environmental problems associated with environmental pollution resulting from economic activity;
- – an increase in the number of problems associated with the shortage and depletion of natural resources, the so-called conflicts of nature management;
- – an increase in the consumption of natural resources due to globalization, when resources extracted from one place (or the goods that are produced from them) can be consumed in another country or on another continent;
- – the processes of changiing the paradigm of human development, namely the transition to the paradigm of sustainable development.