Chewing gum

Chewing gum ( Manilkara zapota ). Species of tree of the family of the sapotáceas native to Mexico , Central America and tropical South America. From it a sap is extracted which is transformed into a gummy polymer that for its sweet and aromatic flavor, many Amerindian peoples used as chewing gum.

Summary

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  • 1 Taxonomy
    • 1 Scientific name
      • 1.1 Authors
    • 2 Basonym
      • 2.1 Basonym combinations
    • 3 Synonymy
    • 4 Common name
  • 2 Origin and extension
  • 3 Description
    • 1 Form
    • 2 Cup and leaves
    • 3 Trunk and branches
    • 4 Bark
    • 5 Flowers
    • 6 fruits
    • 7 Seed
    • 8 Sexuality
  • 4 Distribution
  • 5 Phenology
    • 1 Foliage
    • 2 Flowering
    • 3 Fruiting
    • 4 Pollination
  • 6 Physiological aspects
  • 7 Cultivation
  • 8 Propagation
    • 1 Asexual reproduction
    • 2 Sexual reproduction
  • 9 Effect and service
  • 10 Tolerances
    • 1 Claimant of
    • 2 Sign at
    • 3 Moderately resistant to
    • 4 Resistant to
    • 5 Tolerant to
  • 11 Disadvantages
  • 12 Uses
    • 1 Medicinal uses
  • 13 Gum collection
  • 14 Industrialization
  • 15 References
  • 16 Source

Taxonomy

Scientific name

  • Manilkara zapota (L.) P. Royen

Parts of the Manilkara zapota

[1] [2] [3] [4]

Authors

  • Royen, Pieter van
  • Published in: Blumea 7 (2): 410. 1953. (Dec 18 1953 ) [5]

Basonym

  • Achras zapota L. [6]

Basonym combinations

  • Lucuma zapota (L.) Urb. [7]

Synonymy

  • Annex: Synonymy of Manilkara zapota [8] [9]

Common name

Chewing gum, chewing gum sapote, chewing gum zapote, boy, boy sapote, boy zapote, boysapote, boyzapote, medlar, sapodilla, sapote, white sapote, purple sapote, sapote, white sapote, purple sapote. [10]

Origin and extent

Distribution

Native to Mesoamerica . It was taken by the Spanish to the Philippines and from there it went to Malaysia . It extends from southern Mexico , through Central America to Venezuela and Colombia .

It is currently widely cultivated in South Florida and the West Indies . It has been introduced to the tropics of the Old World .

Description

Shape

Evergreen tree, it develops a great size, from 25 to 30 m (up to 45 m) in height with a diameter at the height of the chest of up to 1.25 m, without buttresses.

Cup and leaves

Manilkara zapota trnoco

Wide, dense and irregular cup. Leaves arranged in a spiral, agglomerated at the tips of the branches, simple; lamina 5.5 to 18 cm long and 2 to 7 cm wide, elliptic to oblong, entire margin; dark green, shiny on the upper side, pale on the underside; glabra, papiracea.

Trunk and branches

Straight trunk, ribbed at the bottom, sypodial growth of the branches (Terminalia type), without buttresses. Numerous branches, the basal ones are horizontal.

Cortex

External deeply fissured, forming more or less rectangular pieces, highly suberified, dark brown. Internal creamy pink color, fibrous, with an abundant sticky white milky exudate, very bitter and astringent: Total thickness: 20 to 25 mm.

flowers

Solitary axillary, sometimes crowded at the tips of the branches; sweetly scented actinomorphic flowers; sepals greenish brown, corolla white, 10 mm long, broadly tubular.

Fruits

Fruit

Berries 5 to 10 cm in diameter with a persistent calyx and style, brown and rough peel; juicy and fleshy endocarp, very sweet. The immature fruits have a certain amount of latex inside.

The fruit normally contains 5 seeds. Seeds). Crushed seeds, 16 to 23 mm long by 8 to 16 mm wide, shiny, black, with the conspicuous white thread on the edge.

Seed

  • Dispersion: Ornitoquiropterócora (birds or fruit bats).
  • Germination: Germination begins after 16 days and is completed after 48 days. 75% germination is obtained after 28 days.
  • Seed type: Intermediate.

 

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