Burns caused by chemical agents : Burns caused by liquids, gases or any object that contains chemical elements in its composition that are harmful to human health . Accidents that are caused by chemical agents generally occur due to careless handling or accidentally being accidents.
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- 1 Specific agents
- 2 C2H4O2 acetic acid
- 3 Hydrochloric and nitric acids HCl and HNO3
- 4 Chromic acid H2CrO4
- 5 Hydrofluoric acid HF
- 6 Formic acid CH2O2
- 7 Oxalic acid H2C2O4
- 8 Sulfuric acid H2SO4
- 9 Cements
- 10 Sources
C2H4O2 acetic acid
Burns with this acid cause injuries at the cellular level, this is a product that is used in the pharmaceutical industry at a high level of purity and is also used in the production of vinegar at a percentage that ranges between 3% and 5%.
Hydrochloric and nitric acids HCl and HNO3
These are widely used in industries and even in the home and laboratories, these are products that have a very low pH but nevertheless burns or contact with humans can produce ulcers with a necrotic sore made up of skin and low blood remains. which continues acting the acid . These acids can obstruct the airway if swallowed and can cause death by suffocation.
Chromic Acid H2CrO4
This acid is very useful in industries because it is used, among other things, to clean materials and metals. This is a solution similar to sulfuric acid and with a yellow appearance. Inhalation of this product can provoke perforation of the nasal septum and, if swallowed, produces severe gastroenteritis, leading the patient or person to glucose nephritis. In contact with skin, burns can be perceived as ulcers. plenty of distilled water is the ideal treatment for burns with this acid.
Hydrofluoric acid HF
Acid long ago known for its use in industries for the production of plastics and fireproof materials, this is an acid that is corrosive. Burns with this acid produce very painful burns from the action of ions that are released by the substance. Patients who suffer accidents with this important acid must be rigorously monitored in their cardiovascular system and also periodically check their metabolic function and the presence of calcium, potassium and magnesium depending on the condition they present.
CH2O2 formic acid
Of almost exclusive industrial use, it is rapidly absorbed, so it does not usually produce skin changes, with systemic manifestations prevailing. It produces metabolic acidosis, intravascular hemolysis, hemoglobinuria and renal failure, it can also associate pulmonary disorders including ARDS. Intake of formic acid produces necrotizing pancreatitis without an increase in amylase levels, prevailing the symptoms of vomiting and abdominal pain. The correction of acidosis, the use of diuretics and in extreme cases the use of hemodialysis should be evaluated in these cases. If there are burns, they usually have a grayish appearance, producing a large formation of edema and flictenes after 48 hours, being deeper in subsequent evaluations than initially apparent.
Oxalic acid H2C2O4
Just as hydrofluoric acid acts as a protoplasmic poison causing chelation of calcium, its contact produces painless white ulcerations (such as chalk), its absorption muscular alterations (attention to respiratory mechanics) and renal tubular necrosis due to precipitation of calcium oxalates, the Systemic treatment is based on the administration of intravenous calcium.
H2SO4 sulfuric acid
It is one of the acids most frequently used in the chemical and pharmaceutical industry, widely used also in everyday life. It mainly works by causing cellular dehydration, it is typical that the lesions produced by this acid are “splashing”, forming specific and limited sores under which the acid continues to act, the treatment consists of initial abundant lavage and surgical debridement if necessary.
It includes a wide group of compounds, the majority of which are alkalis (calcium oxide 64%, silicone dioxide 21%) which, when mixed with sand and gravel, increase their abrasive action, adding water produces higher pH compounds ( calcium hydroxide) and with more corrosive action.