This time, the Biology material will explain the characteristics and classification of kingdom animalia. Pay attention to the explanation below.
Characteristics of Animali a
Kingdom animalia has the following characteristics:
- Can not make their own food or food derived from plants or other animals.
- Eukaryotic and heterotrophic
- Has a unique and unique network and is responsible for producing stimuli and movements, namely nerves and muscles
- Sexually and asexually reproducing.
- Is a multicellular living thing
- Does not have cell walls (More complete explanation in 12 Differences in Animal Cells and Plant Cells)
- Do not have chlorophyll or green substances
- The cells differentiate to form tissues, organs and organ systems.
- In general, can move freely
- Animals that are able to move with parts that can function as a means of motion.
- Examples include tigers, orangutans, birds, insects, snails, starfish, worms, snakes, fish and dogs
Furthermore, it is explained about the type / phylum kingdom animalia
Kingdom Animalia phylum
1. Phylum Porifera
Porifera comes from the word shaft and ferre. Shaft means a small hole. Meanwhile, ferre means to carry. So porifera is an animal that carries or has small holes in its body.
Porifera is the first multicellular metazoa. The characteristics possessed by porifera are as follows.
- The body is multi-celled and has symmetrical radial properties
- His body is hollow or porous
- Living in water, sticking to a base
- General body morphology resembles plants
- Excretion and respiration are carried out by means of diffusion by the entire surface of the body.
- Reproduction is done vegetatively by budding or budmule. While reproduction generatively by conjugation.
- Where the frame is a spicula formed from lime or CaCO 3. Spicules are monoaxone, triaxone, and tetraaxone. The examples are Clathrina, Lecosolenia, Schypa, Sycon, and Grantia.
- Where the frame is a spicula formed by grit or silicate. Having a thorn with six branches or hexaxone. The examples are Aspergillum, Pheronema, Hyalonema, and Euplectella.
- Where the frame is not spicules, but spongin fibers. Having thorns mixed with silicate monoaxone, triaxone, tetraaxone, and hexaxone. The examples are Euspongia, Hippospongia, and Spongilla.
The role of porifera in human life is as follows.
- Sppons or demonospongiae can be used by humans for bathing and as a glass cleaner.
2. Phylum Coelenterata
Coelenterata comes from coelos and enteron. Coelos is a cavity. Meanwhile, enteron is the intestine. Thus, the coelenterata is an animal that has a cavity.
Coelenterata are sometimes medusae and polyps. The characteristics possessed by the coelenterata are as follows.
- The body is radially symmetrical or cylindrical, globular, or spherical.
- The diploblastic body wall consists of ectoderm and edoderm which have nettle or stinging cells.
- Does not have anus, only has a mouth that is equipped with tentacles around it.
- The digestive system is incomplete, only in the form of a gastrovascular cavity.
- Do not have a respirator, circulation apparatus, or a special excretion tool.
Coelenterata classification can be explained as follows.
- Hydrozoa class. Where this class is living solitary or colonizing. Its life cycle consists of the polyp and medusa phases. Gastrovascular cavity is not equipped with stomedeum and mesentrium, or nettle cells.
The mesoglea layer is a non-cellular layer which forms a paste. Gonadnya can be found in the epidermis layer. The examples of the Hydrozoa class are Hydra sp., Obelia sp., And Physalia pelagica.
- Scyphozoa class. Where the body resembles a bowl. Its life cycle consists of the polyp and medusa phases. However, the media phase is more prominent. Examples from this class are Pericolpa Quadrigata, Lucernaria, and Aurelia aurita or jellyfish.
- Anthozoa class. Where the shape resembles a flower. The media phase has been reduced so that there is only a polyp phase. The Google layer is cellular. Examples of this class are Metridium or sea anemone, Tubifora musica or distilled coral, Antipathes dichotoma, Gorgonia flegellum or sea fan, Arcophora sp., Meandrina sp., Fungia sp., Astrangia danae, and Renilla reniformis.
The role of coelenterata in human life is as follows.
- Jellyfish can be used for jellyfish flour, then processed into cosmetic ingredients.
- In Japan, jellyfish are used for food.
- Atolls, coastal corals and barrier reefs can protect the beach from abrasion and are a breeding ground for fish breeding.
Also see: Viruses: Definition, Characteristics, Classification, Breeding and Role in Biology
3. Phylum Platyhelminthes
Plathyhelminthes comes from the words platys and helminthes. Platys means flat. While helminthes means worm. So platyhelminthes is flatworms. The characteristics of platyhelminthes are as follows.
- Its body is flat, the ciliated epidermis, troploblastik, acoelomata, and symmetrical bilaterally.
- Do not have a circulatory system and respiratory system.
- Excretion system in the form of nephridia
- The digestive system is not perfect and has no anus.
- The nervous system is in the form of a rope ladder
- Having muscles, digestive cavity, in the form of gastrovascular which does not have anus.
- Vegetative reproduction by fragmentation and generative reproduction by cross fertilization, in general are hermaphrodite.
The platyhelminthes classification can be described as follows.
- Turkish class. Where the body is stick-shaped, the ciliated epidermis, has two eyes, has no suction device. It lives in clear fresh water, sea water or a damp place, and rarely as a parasite. Can regenerate by cutting the body and high regeneration power. The examples are Planaria sp., And Alaurina couposita.
- Cestoda class. Where the body is flat like a ribbon, consisting of the head or skoleks and the body or strobila. Have a hook sucker. Each body segment or proglotid is one individual and has its own breeding tool. Cestoda has hemaphrodite properties. The examples are Taenia saginata, Taenia solium in human intestine, Choanotaenia infudibulum in chicken intestine, Echinococcus granulosus in dog intestine and Dipylidium latum which attacks humans.
- Trematoda Class. Where the body is covered by cuticles, it does not have bilateral cilia and symmetries. The mouth has a suction device. Trematodes have hermaphrodite and parasitic properties. For example, Fasciola hepatica is a parasite in sheep’s liver, Fasciola gigantica is a parasite in cow’s liver, Chlonorchis sinensis is a parasite in humans, Polystomum sp., Octobothrium and Schistosoma japonicum.
The role of Platyhelminthes can be human life, which is as follows.
- In general platyhelminthes is harmful, because it has parasitic properties in humans and animals, except planaria sp.
- Planaria can be used as food for fish.
4. Phem Nemathelminthes
Nemathelminthes comes from the words nemathos and helminthes. Nemathos means yarn. Meanwhile, helminthes means worms. Thus, nemathelminthes is a worm in the form of a thread, has an intestine, and has no probosis.
The characteristics of nemathelminthes are as follows.
- The body is covered with cuticles, has no segments, pseudoselomata and triploblastik.
- Perfect digestive tract, from the mouth to the anus.
- Its body is cylindrical and segmented, covered by a cuticle.
- The respiratory system diffuses through the body surface
- There is no circulatory channel, but this worm has a fluid that functions like blood.
- The genitals are separate, female worms are larger than male worms, and do not reproduce asexually.
- Male worms have hooked ends.
The classification of nemathelminthes can be explained as follows.
- Nematode class. Where the body is cylindrical like a thread. Nema means yarn and toda means shape. For example, Ascaris lumbricoides or roundworms, necator americanus and ancylostoma duodenale or hookworm, oxyuris vermicularis or pinworms, and wuchereria bancrofti are the causes of elephantiasis.
- Nematophora class. Where the body is shaped like a small round hair, also called a hair worm. The examples are nectonema sp and gordiust sp. is a parasite on arthropods.
The role of nemathelminthes in human life can be explained as follows.
- Most nemathelminthes have parasitic properties both in humans and animals.
- But there are also worms that have an important role in maintaining the balance of nature through food webs, such as ascaris lumbricoides and ascaris suillae.
5. Phylum Annelida
Annelida is derived from the words annulis and oidos. Annulus means a small bracelet or ring. Whereas oidos means form. Thus, annelids are worms whose bodies are jointed like rings or rings.
The characteristics possessed by annelida are as follows.
- Its body is symmetrical bilaterally, covered by slippery cuticles, long and segmented.
- Each segment is equipped with one to four sets of setae.
- The motion apparatus is in the form of stiff hairs or setae in each segment.
- Having tentacles, body cavity or coelom and is generally divided by septa.
- Closed cardiovascular system
- Respiration with the skin or with branchia
- The excretory organ consists of a pair of nephridia in each segment
- Most are hermaphrodite
- Complete digestion of food, from the mouth to the anus
- The nervous system consists of the cerebrale ganglion and the ventral nerve bundle
- The circulatory system is closed
- Having one pair of dorsal cerebral ganlions.
- Having a lateral nerve ganglion.
The classification of annelids can be explained as follows
- Polychaeta class. Where the body is jagged, coelom is generally divided by septa and intersegmental. His life at sea, has gonochoristic nature, and has many setae. External fertilization, development through the larval stage is called trochopora. The examples are nereis sp., Eunice sp., And lysidace sp.
- The oligochaeta class. Its body is segmented, cylindrical as follows, has no parapodia, prostomium is clearly present but is generally without an extremity. Having a hermaphrodite nature, reproduction is done by cross fertilization. The example is lumbricus terestis
- Hirudinae class. It has many curves or annullies, no setae or parapodia. Has two suction devices and has hermaphroditic properties. Has a substance called hirudinin which can cause blood to clot when smoked. The examples are hirudo medicinalis or leeches, and haemodipsa sp or pacet.
The role of annelids in human life is as follows. Most of these animals are harmless and even hirudo medicinalis or leeches are used as alternatives for blood washing.
6. Phylum Mollusca
The features possessed by molluscs are as follows.
- Soft, multicellular, and triploblastic selomata.
- Most have lime and mantle grafts
- The body is bilateral symmetry and has no segments, except for monoplacophora
- Having a clear head with head receptor organs that have special properties
- Coelom reduces, thick and muscular body walls
- Has muscular legs that are generally used for moving
- Anal and excretory holes generally open into the mantle cavity.
- Molluscs have a fully developed digestive system, which already has a digestive tract from the mouth to the anus, in the oral cavity it is found that a moving tongue is also called a radula or scar tongue.
- Ovum has a small size and contains a little egg yolk
- Excretion organs in the form of kidneys that have a number of pairs or sometimes only amount to one fruit, kidney associated with the pericandrium cavity
- Having a circulatory channel and heart consisting of auricles and ventricles. The circulatory system is open, except for cephalopods where the circulatory system is closed.
- It does not have a deep frame, but has a mantle gland that can be used to form grafts from CaCO3 or lime and lenders. The graft has a function to protect the body.
- The nervous system is in the form of three pairs of nerve vertices or ganglions, namely the cerebral ganglion, the visceral ganglion, and the pedal ganglion. All three are interconnected with nerve fibers.
- Respiration is carried out by the pulponum, epidermins, gills or mantle.
- Separate or dioceus reproductive organs, but some are hermaphrodite as in snails
- Cosmopolitan habitat, meaning that it can live in sea water, fresh water, land from the poles to the tropics.
The classification of molluscs can be described as follows.
- Polyplacophora or amphineura class. Where the body has bilateral symmetry, the graft is composed of eight transversal sheets of lime. Its legs occupy areas along the ventral part of the body. His life in sea water and breathing using gills. The example is Chiton sp.
- Gastropod class. His body is asymmetrical, moving using the stomach legs. It has hermaphrodite properties. Single graft, spiral shape, various sizes, and different graft colors. Some do not have a graft like limax sp. Live in water or land, breathe using gills or lungs. The examples are achantina sp., Limax maximus, lymnea javanica, helix pomantia, and achantina fulica.
- Bivalvia class. Where the body is symmetrical bilaterally and flat feet. It has a pair of grafts with a protrusion called umbo. Coat with the coat cavity. Having gills in the form of sheets, are gonochris. The examples are mussel sp., Pinctada margaritifera, and pinctada mertensi.
- Chepalopoda class. Where the feet join the head in the form of hands, tentacles and or siphons. Does not have a graft and has an ink bag, except nautilus. Breathing using gills has gonochoris properties. The example is Loligo sp. or squid – cum, octopus sp or octopus, sepia sp. and nautilus sp.
- Scaphoda class. The graft tip has a hole in the shape of an ivory tusk. His life in sea water. The example is detalium entale.
The role of molluscs in human life can be explained as follows.
- As food, for example, squid and octopus
- For jewelry or pearls
- Is a pest for plants, such as golden snails and snails
7. Phylum Arthropoda
Arthropods come from arthrons and podos. Arthron means joint or joint. While podos means feet. Thus, Arthropods are animals with broad legs or books. The characteristics possessed by Arthropoda are as follows
- His body consists of a head, chest, and abdomen that can be distinguished
- Bilateral symmetry and triplobastic selomata
- Arthropods have a skeletal or chitin outer framework, at a certain time the skin will change or undergo ecdysis
- The digestive tract is fully developed from the mouth to the anus posteriorly
- Excretion tools include green glands in crustaceans, malpighi cells in myriapoda, arachnoide, and insecta
- Respiratory apparatus in the form of gills in crustaceans, trachea in insects and myriapoda, book lungs in arachnids
- The nervous system is a rope ladder system
- Generative reproduction, separate genitals, and internal fertilization
- The circulatory system is open, consisting of the heart, vessels and aorta, the respiratory system with gills, body surface, trachea and lungs of the book.
Arthropod classification can be explained as follows
- Crustacean class. Where the body consists of cephalothorax and abdomen. Has a pair of faet eyes and a pair of antennas. The foot is in all segments. The respirator is in the form of gills. The examples are uca pugnax, pagurus sp., Penaeus monodon, ochipoda, and cambarus sp.
- The chilopoda class. Where the body is elongated and segmented, consisting of the head and abdomen, the thorax is unclear. It has a pair of antennas and one pair of legs in each segment. The respirator is in the form of a trachea system. The example is scolopendridae heros or centipede
- Diplopod class. Where the body consists of the abdomen and the abdomen, the thorax is unclear and the antenna is short. Has a lot of segments with two pairs of legs per segment. The respirator is in the form of a trachea system. The example is Spirobolus sp. or millipede.
- Arachnoid class. Where the body consists of cephalothorax and abdomen. Has four pairs of legs. His body has no segments, no antenna. Breathe using the lungs. For example, limulus poliphemus, centuroides and heterometrus cyanicus
- Insecta class. Where the body consists of cephal, thorax, and abdomen. It has antennae, facet eyes, single eyes and wings. The respirator is in the form of a trachea system. The examples are mantis religlosa, valanga magricormis, magicicada septendicum, pieris rapae, crocotharmis sp., And phyllopnaga
The role of Arthropods in human life can be explained as follows
- The butterfly and bee or insecta groups are very helpful for farmers because they can help the process of pollinating flowers
- Honey bees or apis mellifera can produce honey
- Silkworms make cocoons that can produce silk
- Crustaceans are widely used as food
- Insect can also be detrimental to being plant pests, parasites in humans, and livestock. In addition, many animals from this phylum are poisonous.
8. Phylum Echinoderms
Echinoderms are derived from the words echinos and derma. Echinos means thorn. Meanwhile, charity means skin. So echinoderms are animals with thorn skin. The characteristics of echinoderms are as follows.
- Bilateral symmetry of the body when the larvae and radial symmetry when they are adults, are round and equipped with long arms.
- Larvae are called bipinnaria.
- Breeding in mating, the genitals separate from external fertilization.
- The motion tool is in the form of an ambulacral leg
- Having no segments, the whole body is covered in chalky and thorny frame seramer pentamer.
- The digestive apparatus develops completely from the mouth to the anus, except the ophiuroidea class which does not have the anus
- Excretion uses amoebid cells
- Trobloblastik selomata.
- The selom is bounded by the ciliated peritoneum, the unified solom with an ambulacral leg.
- Respiratory apparatus in the form of dermal branchiata, tube legs or tentacles, gill feet
- The nervous system is centered in the nerve ring, connected by radial nerve cords.
- Hermaphrodites in the holothuroidea class are paired separately or married
- Evolutionary relationships with chordates are closer than those of other animals because they have similarities including the existence of mesodermal endoskeleton, in the blastophor, there is anus, the mouth is formed from the ectoderm sac and the mesoderm develops to form a sac.
Echinoderms can be explained as follows.
- Ophiuroidea class. Shaped like a snake. Does not have an ambulacral gap. The long-sleeved and slim pentamer is easy to move. The examples are ophiutrix sp., Ophiura sp., And ophiuderma sp.
- Echinoidea class. The shape is like a hedgehog, discs, or globular. Frame from chalk pieces. The body is prickly, has no ambulacral gaps, no hands. The examples are arbacia punktulata, diadema sp., Echinarachinus sp., Strongylocentrolus sp., Colobocentrotus sp., And heterocentrotus sp.
- Holothuroidea class. Where the thorns are smooth, the body is like a cucumber, and has tentacles. The movements are flexible, gentle, and have no arms. The mouth is located at the anterior end and the anus is at the tip of the abora. The examples are thyone briares and holothuria sp.
- Asteroid class. Where it looks like a star, the body is divided into five hands or pentamer. There is an ambulacral gap. At the tip of the hand there are eye spots and tetakel. The examples are Asterias Forbest, Penta Ceros sp., And Linkhia sp.
- Crinoide class. This class is similar to a flower plant, has five arms. The mouth and anus are on the oral surface and do not have madreporites. The examples are metacrinus sp and antedon tenella.
The role of echinoderms in human life is as follows
- As an ocean cleaner, because echinoderms help in cleaning the ocean
- Used as food, such as sea cucumbers or sea urchin eggs
- Used as decoration
- Echinoderms can also be harmful because they eat oysters or pearl oysters and coral animals so that many die
9. Phylum Chordata
Chordates are animals that have four anatomical structures that emerge during the embryonic period. These structures are the notokorda or temporary body strap or axis, perforated dorsal nerve cord, pharyngeal cleft, and muscular anal peg tail.
The characteristics of the chordates are as follows
- Has three embryonal or triploblastic layers
- It has a coelum that has proliferated
- Having complex organs
- The nerve center is in the form of vessels that are on the back or dorsal notokorda
- Her body is bilateral symmetry
- There is an anterior and posterior body division
- It has body segments, but only a few
- Supporting the body in the form of a deep framework or endoskeleton
- Perfect digestive system
- The circulatory system is closed
- The respiratory system is in the form of gills for the water chordata and lungs for the land chordata
- The excretion system is in the form of kidneys, most of which are equipped with urine bags
- The nervous system is divided into the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system
- Sexually reproductive system
The chordate classification can be explained as follows
- Subfilum hemichordata. Where in this subfile has a short notokorda. Flat body shape like a worm. In general, habitats on the seabed are muddy or sandy. The example is Saccoglossus
- Urochordata subfilum. Where the body is short and thick. Notokorda can only be found in the tail of the larva. Habitat in the sea freely or attached to the substrate. Some have their lives forming colonies. The example is the tunikata animal group.
- Cephalochordata subfilum. Where the body is flat elongated rather transparent. The posterior part is pointed, generally called the lancet. In general, burying themselves in clean sand by the seafront by appearing anteriorly. The examples are amphioxus and lancelet.
- Vertebrate subfilum. Having a body that is divided into head, neck, body, and tail. Having vertebrae. The brain is inside the skull bones. The examples are fish and tetrapods.
Furthermore, the vertebrate subfile is divided into two super classis namely pisces and tetrapods . Each can be explained as follows.
Super classic Pisces
This group is commonly known as fish. Having scales on his body. Has a pair of jaws except in agnatha classis. Along the sides of the body it has lateral lines that play a role for the anal senses.
Pisces are grouped into four classes, as follows.
The characteristic of this classis is that it does not yet have a jaw so that its mouth is as simple as the mouth of a worm’s. Has parasitic properties in large fish. The example is lamprey or sea eel.
The characteristic of this classis is that it has a scalyoid or tooth-shaped body.
This classis characteristic is that it has a framework composed of cartilage. The examples of this class are rays and sharks.
The characteristics of this classis is that it has a framework composed of hard bones. His life in brackish water and the sea. The examples are goldfish, catfish, and gourami.
Super classis tetrapoda
This animal has four legs, hence the name tetrapoda. Tetrapods are grouped into four classes, which can be explained as follows.
Amphibia has two phases in its life, namely the phase of life on land and in water. Has a moist and slimy skin. Amphibians are grouped into three orders, as follows.
Urodela Order, the characteristics of this order that has the same larval and adult forms, the same forelegs and hind legs. The example of this order is megalobatrachus japonicus or giant salamander, salamandra corsica.
Apoda Order, the characteristics of this order are worm-like shape, no legs, short tail, and live in a dark and wet place. The example of this order is ichtyophis glutinosus or worm salamander.
Anura Order, the characteristics of this order are having a body consisting of head and body, without neck and tail. An example of this order is bufo terrestis or frog.
Reptiles are also called reptiles because they move by crawling using muscle cells. Reptiles are grouped into four orders, as follows.
Order squmata, the characteristics of this order are the skin containing horns. Examples include snakes, chameleons, lizards, geckos and lizards.
The order of the testudinata, the characteristic of this order is that the body is protected by carapace and plastons. Examples include turtles, sea turtles, and machinations.
Crocodile order, the characteristics of this order scaly body surface as a result of ossification or reinforcement. An example is a crocodile.
Rhynchocepholia Order, the characteristics of this order are the skin containing horns and scaly substances, and short spiny backs. The example of this order is tuatara or sphenodon punctatum.
Aves are also called poultry or birds. Aves are feathered and winged animals. Can generally fly. Aves are grouped into several orders, namely as follows
Order ratites, the characteristics of this order can not fly. Examples are ostriches or struthio camelus.
Order galliformes, the characteristics of this order are having legs for prying and running. The example is a native chicken or gallus gallus bankiva.
Order natatores, the characteristics of this order are having a swimming membrane between the toes that has the function to swim, and short legs. Examples of this order are swans or olor columbianus.
Order grallatores, the characteristics of this order are having a long beak, neck and legs. For example, flamingo or phoenicopterus rubber.
Order coraciformes, the characteristics of this order are having a large beak and head, and short legs. Examples are hornbills or buceros rhinoceros
Order columbiformes, the characteristics of this order are having a large cache and eaters of seeds. For example, pigeons or columba domestica.
The order of apodiformes, for example is swallow or caetura pelagica. Order oscines, the characteristics of this order that is having a melodious voice because it has a vocal cords that function properly. Examples are canary or serinus canaria.
Mammals are also called mammals. This group has hair and breastfeeding their children at certain times. Mammals are grouped into several orders, namely as follows.
Order monotremata , the characteristics of this order are beaked and egg-laying mammals, as for example the paltipus or ornitorhyncus anatinus.
Marsupialia Order , the characteristics of this order are mammals with pockets, for example, kangaroos or macropus giganteus.
The order insectivora , the characteristics of this order are insect-eating mammals, for example, hedgehog or hystrir javanica.
The dermoptera order , the characteristics of this order, are skin-winged mammals such as bat wings, for example galeopithecus.
Chiroptera Order , the characteristics of this order are winged mammals with a membrane between the finger segments to the back to the back of the front limbs. For example, batot codot or pteropus edulis.
Primate order , the characteristics of this order are mammals that have long limbs, for example, gorillas or gorillas.
Pholidota , the characteristics of this order are scaly and toothless mammals. Examples are pangolins or sweet javanica.
Rodentia Order , the characteristics of this order are rodent mammals. For example, mice or mus musculus mice.
The lagomorpha order , a mammalian trait that is similar to the rodentia order, but has four or more incisors. Examples are rabbits or lepus nigricollis.
Carnivorous Order , the characteristics of this order are meat-eating mammals. Examples are dogs or canis familiaris
The Sirenia Order , this order is usually called the sea cow. Examples are Australian dugong or halugore dugong.
The role of chordates in human life is as follows.
- All animals on this earth have a role in human life.
- Various types of chordate animals are used by humans into several functions, including, food (chicken, goat, beef, and fish), leather (cow, goat, snake, and crocodile), transportation (horses, donkeys, camels, elephants , and buffalo), and pets (fish, cats, birds and dogs).
Thus the presentation of the characteristics, and classification of kingdom animalia. Hopefully this article helps you in understanding about kingdom animalia. Have a good study.