The biomolecules are molecules that are present in all living beings. Biomolecules could be said to make up all living things regardless of size.
Each molecule (that constitutes a biomolecule) is made up of atoms . These are called bioelements . Each bioelement can be composed of carbon , hydrogen , oxygen , nitrogen , sulfur and phosphorous . Each biomolecule will be composed of some of these bioelements.
The main function of biomolecules is to “be a constituent part” of all living beings. On the other hand they must form the structure of the cell. It may also be that biomolecules must perform some activity of relevant importance to the cell.
Types of biomolecules
Biomolecules can be classified into inorganic biomolecules such as water , mineral salts, and gases, while organic biomolecules are subdivided according to their combination of specific molecules and functions.
There are 4 types of organic biomolecules :
Carbohydrates . The cell needs carbohydrates since they provide a great source of energy. These are made up of 3 bioelements : Carbon , Hydrogen and Oxygen . According to the combination of these molecules, carbohydrates can be:
- Monosaccharides . They have a single molecule of each. Within this group are fruits. Glucose is also a monosaccharide and is present in the blood of living beings.
- Disaccharides . The union of two monosaccharide carbohydrates will form a disaccharide. An example of this is the sucrose found in sugar and lactose.
- Polysaccharides . When three or more monosaccharides are bound together they will result in a polysaccharide carbohydrate biomolecule. Some of these are starch (found in potatoes or potatoes) and glycogen (found in the body of living beings, mainly in the muscles and in the liver organ).
See also: Examples of Monosaccharides, Disaccharides and Polysaccharides
Lipids . They form the membranes of the cell and are reserve energy for the organism. Sometimes these can be vitamins or hormones. They are made up of a fatty acid and alcohol. They in turn have extensive chains of carbon and hydrogen atoms . They can only be dissolved in substances such as alcohol or ether. Therefore, it is not possible to dissolve these in water. They can be subdivided according to their specific function into 4 groups:
- Lipids with energy function . They are in the form of fat. It is the characteristic fatty tissue that many living beings have under the skin. This lipid generates an insulating and protective layer from the cold. It is also present in the leaves of plants, preventing them from drying out easily.
- Lipids with structural function . They are phospholipids (phosphorous containing molecules) and form the membrane of the cells .
- Lipids with hormonal function . These are also called “ steroids .” Example:human sex hormones .
- Lipids with vitamin function . These lipids provide substances for the correct growth of living beings. Some of these are Vitamins A, D, and K.
See also: Lipid Examples
Proteins . They are biomolecules that fulfill various functions in the body. They are made up of the molecules of carbon , oxygen , hydrogen and nitrogen .
These proteins have amino acids . There are 20 different types of amino acids. The combination of these amino acids will result in different proteins. However (and given the multiplicity of combinations) they can be classified into 5 large groups:
- Structural proteins . They are part of the body of all living beings. An example of this group of proteins is keratin.
- Hormonal proteins . They regulate some functions of the organism. An example of this group is insulin, which has the function of controlling the entry of glucose into the cell.
- Defense proteins . They function as a defense for the organism. In other words, they are in charge of attacking and defending the body against microorganisms, bacteria or viruses. These are called antibodies . For example: white blood cells.
- Transport proteins . As the name implies, they are responsible for transporting substances or molecules through the blood. For example: hemoglobin.
- Enzymatic action proteins . They accelerate the assimilation of nutrients by the different organs of the body. An example of this is amylase, which breaks down glucose to allow its better assimilation by the body.
See also: Examples of Proteins
Nucleic acids . They are acids that must, as the main function, control the functions of the cell. But the main function is to transmit the genetic material from generation to generation. These acids are made up ofcarbon,hydrogen,oxygen,nitrogenandphosphorousmolecules. These are divided into units which are callednucleotides.