Bioconstruction . Construction system born in Germany in the 70s combines appropriate traditional construction techniques and more efficient and healthy technologies. In addition, a wide range of factors are taken into account, ranging from energy efficiency to the application of healthy and natural paints.
These systems are presented as alternatives to polluting industries and to create buildings with low environmental impact, and generally lower manufacturing costs.
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- 1 Emergence
- 2 Fundamental Principles
- 3 Aspects to consider
- 4 External links
- 5 Sources
Facade of an ecological house
In the beginning, bioconstruction arises in response to a need to live in a healthier way, focusing on the search for a healthy home.
In recent years it was found that more and more, the health of the human species is linked to the health of the planet and that when the action of man takes on a more global sense and power than the biodiversity and harmony of the planet, it is participating in the construction of the great house that is the home of life. As a modern and contemporary concept, it has been conforming for about 25-30 years.
It was born as a new, clear and comprehensive discipline that allows us to meet common objectives in fields as different as that of Sustainable Technologies, Ecology , Bioclimatic Architecture or Public Health , with the coherence and future vision essential for the development of Planning Urban, Architecture and Construction in general.
A bioconstruction system is based on the concept that when building buildings, homes or other types of constructions, it must be carried out with materials that mean a low impact on the environment . This manufacturing system is tremendously valid today, as it is very common to find in today’s construction, the use of highly toxic and sophisticated materials.
The use of alternative building materials is a great help in the conservation of the planet’s natural resources. Today it is possible, for example, to use: recyclable materials, waste materials, low environmental impact, handicrafts, etc. There are other deconstruction materials that are very harmful from the ecological point of view, such as varnishes, paints, seals and insulators that are made from petroleum derivatives , the same happens for example with cement , which has traces of heavy metals such as chromium or zinc .
To make a construction under the criteria of bio-construction, some basic parameters must be considered, such as what use will be made of resources such as air , water , soil , energy management, etc. In addition to the above, it is also important to take into account: the proper location – integration with the environment – adequate orientation and distribution of spaces – use of clean building systems, etc.
The application of the principles of bioconstruction, must have to the base, the change of mentality of the people who wish to build their houses and of the professionals in charge of planning the dwellings or housing complexes.
Aspects to consider
When carrying out a biocostruction project, a series of aspects must be taken into account, they are:
- Energy efficiency and renewable energy
- Orientation of the building to take advantage of the entry of the sun, develop shadows and natural light.
- Microclimate effects in the building.
- Thermal efficiency of the building envelope.
- Proper sizing of heating, hot water, ventilation and air conditioning systems.
- Implement alternative energy sources.
- Minimization of electricity consumption for lighting and appliances.
- Use of incentives to cut costs.
- Direct and indirect environmental impact
- Maintain the integrity of space and vegetation during construction.
- Use of comprehensive pest management.
- Use of native plants in the garden.
- Minimization of polluting effects in the water table.
- Raise awareness about the effect of the choice of materials on the depletion of resources and on air and water pollution.
- Use of local building materials.
- Rationing the amount of energy consumed to produce building materials.
- Resource conservation and recycling
- Promote the use of recyclable products and those containing recycled materials.
- Reuse building components, equipment and furniture.
- Minimize construction costs and demolition debris through reuse and recycling.
- Convenient access to recycling tools for building occupants.
- Minimization of construction spending and demolition debris through the reuse of gray water and the use of saving devices.
- Use of rainwater for irrigation
- Water saving in building maintenance.
- Use of alternative water expenditure treatment methods.
- Indoor environmental quality
- Minimize the content of volatile organic components of building materials.
- Minimization of microbial growth opportunities.
- Adequate supply of fresh air.
- Minimize the chemical content and volatility of maintenance and cleaning materials.
- Minimization of sources of contamination of office machines.
- Adequate acoustic control.
- Access to daylight and common spaces
- Community structures
- Access to the place by public transport and tracks for cyclists or sidewalks.
- Take into account how the history and culture of the community affect the characteristics of building designs or construction materials.
- Implement local incentives, policies and regulations that promote green building.
- Create local infrastructure for waste recycling management.
- Regional availability of products and environmental experts.
|Structure and enclosures||Walls and mortars||Insulators||Finishes|
|Block and brick of cooked earth.||Cal hydraulic lime and fat.||Natural fibers ( hemp , linen , cotton , cork , straw, cellulose , coconut )||Silicate and lime paints|
|Stabilized earth blocks.||Cast||Expanded clay||Natural varnishes with linseed base|
|Pressed earth and adobes.||Clay||Conductions|
|Wood and Stone||Wood|
|Polyethylene , Polypropylene||Zinc||Cooked clay||High density polyethylene|
|Ceramics||Cooked clay||Continuous Mortar Floors||Polybutylene|
|Cast iron, galvanized steel||Polypropylene||Wood|