Baroque

Baroque. Period of history in Western Culture that produced works in the field of Literature , Sculpture, Painting, Architecture , Dance and Music , and which covers from the year 1600 to the year 1750 approximately. It is usually situated between the Renaissance and the Neoclassical , at a time when the European Catholic Church had to react against many cultural revolutionary movements that produced a new science and a dissenting religion within the dominant Catholicism itself: the Protestant Reformation .

Baroque sensibility shows a spectacular tendency towards the decorative, an abandonment of the rules of classical aesthetics, a search for originality at all costs, a predominance of fantasy over the faithful representation of reality, a thorough exploration of psychology. human and an inordinate taste for bombast. [one]

The popularity and success of this style were encouraged by the Roman Catholic Apostolic Church which had decided at the time of the Council of Trent , in response to the Protestant Reformation, that the arts should communicate religious themes in direct and emotional involvement. The aristocracy also viewed the dramatic style of Baroque architecture and art as a means of impressing visitors and expressing its triumphant power and command. Aesthetically, the Baroque was characterized, in general lines, by the complication of forms and the predominance of ingenuity and art over the harmony of nature, which constituted the Renaissance ideal. The main currents of 17th century poetrythey can be framed in culteranismo and conceptism that arise from the need of some poets to innovate and renew the cultured poetic language of the Renaissance. [2]

Summary

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  • 1 Origin
  • 2 Development
  • 3 Features
    • 1 Italian Baroque
    • 2 French Baroque
    • 3 Spanish Baroque
    • 4 Architecture
      • 4.1 Urbanism
      • 4.2 Churches
      • 4.3 Palaces
    • 5 Sculpture
    • 6 Painting
    • 7 Literature
    • 8 Theater
    • 9 Music
  • 4 Representative figures
  • 5 Important works
  • 6 See also
  • 7 External links
  • 8 References
  • 9 Sources

Origin

The period called baroque runs between the 17th and 18th centuries and the word by which it is named was invented by later critics, rather than by practitioners of the arts at the time indicated, that is, the artists who generated this style. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the word baroque is derived from the Portuguese word “baroque”, in Spanish “barrueco”, or French “baroque” which means “pearl imperfect or irregular”. Barlocco or brightnesscco , ancient and similar words are used in the Roman dialect with the same meaning. It is also known as mud-coconut. Another interpretation is derived from the noun Baroco,used in a sarcastic and controversial tone to indicate an artificial and pedantic way of reasoning. In both cases the term expresses the concept of confused and impure artifice, of deception, of the whim of nature, of extravagance of thought.

This term was initially used with a derogatory meaning, to underline the excesses of its emphasis, as opposed to the clearest and most sober rationality of the Enlightenment (18th century). In particular, the term was used to describe its eccentric redundancy and the noisy abundance of details that greatly contrasted the clear and sober rationality of the Renaissance. This was a term applied first to architecture, and to music. It was finally rehabilitated in 1888 by the German art historian Heinrich Wölfflin , who identified the Baroque as an opponent of the Renaissance and as a different class within “elaborate” art.

Development

Peter Paul Rubens

The special stylistic attitude that characterizes baroque art reached its moment of maturity in Italy around 1630 and developed in the following forty years. From that moment it spread to all the nations of Europe , playing an important role in the religious conflicts of the period.

Faced with the Protestant tendency to construct buildings for worship in a sober and undecorated manner, the Catholic Church used Baroque grandeur and complexity for its liturgical purposes. The papacy reacted against the division caused by the reform initiated by Luther, generating the movement that became known as the Counter-Reformation. The architecture , the sculpture and painting , were used for the prestige of papal authority and illustrate the truths of faith. In this sense, it can be affirmed that the baroque is the aesthetic expression of the Counter-Reformation. [3]

Royalty used the sumptuousness of this cultural movement to make propaganda that benefits them both in the art world and in society. Meanwhile, the bourgeoisie of the time used it to express their ideas and transcend beyond their time.

Louvre Museum

A defining statement of Baroque painting is provided by the series of paintings executed by Pedro Pablo Rubens for Marie de Medici at the Luxembourg Palace in Paris (now the Louvre Museum ), paintings in which a Catholic painter met a sponsor Catholic.

The architecture and sculpture acquired very favorable characteristics in the Baroque style. Gian Lorenzo Bernini was undoubtedly the most important sculptor of this style.

He sculpted, worked as an architect, painted, wrote works, and organized the lenses. In the 20th century , Bernini was highly valued for his virtuosity at carving marble and his ability to create figures that combine the physical and the spiritual in his sculptures. He was also a fine sculptor of portraits in the form of busts, which generated great demand among the powerful. Although the Baroque was replaced in many centers by the so-called Rococo style , which began in France after 1720 , especially for interiors, paintings, and the decorative arts, Baroque architecture remained a viable style until the advent of Neoclassicism in late from the 18th century .

characteristics

Santiago de Compostela Cathedral

The Baroque is a time opposed to the Renaissance that stands out for an ever-present feeling of mistrust, pessimism and disappointment. [4]It is characterized by the accumulation of forms and excesses of superposition of ornamental elements and in which twisted columns and pilasters that do not support anything appear, architraves and walls that bend and twist, figures in the unnaturally illuminated paintings and sculptures that seek effects illusionists. It responds to an increasingly homogeneous mentality, which took different forms in different countries. It can be said that the baroque is an understandable style for all that is manifested with two opposed ideas: the luxurious and courteous baroque, theatrical and catholic; and the bourgeois baroque designed to represent real, everyday life and which encompasses Protestantism.

It really expressed new values; in literature the use of metaphor and allegory is abundant. It represents a different state of mind, closer to romanticism than to rebirth, even though it is a movement that was born at the same time as the latter in some countries. Virtuosity was investigated by artists of this time along with realism. Fantasy and imagination were evoked in the viewer, in the reader, in the listener. Everything was focused around the individual man, as a direct relationship between the artist and his client. Art then becomes less distant from people, solving the cultural void that it used to keep.

Italian Baroque

Sistine Chapel

The spiritual phenomenon that crystallized in Italy and the new artistic conception was the counter reform; Hence, the city of the Popes was precisely the site of a remodeling work based essentially on religious thematic exaltation, one of the main lines of Baroque architecture both in its beginnings in Rome and in later stages of fulfillment throughout the West. In accordance with the orders of the papacy, the work of numerous urban architects proliferated: along with the buildings of the three great names of the greatest period of the Baroque flourishing, Piero de Cortona , Gian Lorenzo Bernini and Borrominni among others.

The reform project issued by the papal authority responded to the political-religious need to confer importance on the great Roman basilicas and link them together through streets that facilitate their visits to pilgrims. But an economic and social situation was also a response, since Rome being still a walled city, its population grew more and more. The beautiful fountains that characterized Rome were built during the 16th century . One of the most famous is the Trevi Fountain by Niccolo Salvi .

Basilica of Saint Peter

The resources of urbanization and ornamentation were applied in the villas of the Popes and Cardinalsin whose gardens alternated forests and meadows populated with ruins, statues and fountains. The two architects par excellence were Borromini and Bernini. From Borromini there are: “San Carlos de las Cuatro Fuentes”; “Saint Ivo”; the “Oratory of the Philippians”; “The Church of Santa Inés” in Piazza Navona, with a concave facade, with two towers and a large dome. While there are works by Bernini such as: “Baldaquino de San Pedro”, “Colonnade of San Pedro”, “San Andrés del Quirinal”, “Palacio Barberini”, “Palacio Chigui-Odeschalchi” and sculptures of mythological themes such as “Apolo and Daphne “, or the” David “; funerary themes such as the “Sepulcher of Pope Urban VII”; of urban character as the “Fountain of the Four Rivers”, in Piazza Navona; themes of divine love such as “Ecstasy of Saint Teresa”. Naturalist portraits: “Constantine on horseback”; “Death of Blessed Albertona”, which deals with the theme of divine love; “Bust of Louis XIV of France”.

Naples and Sicily were the places where the baroque was accepted with enthusiasm, where the architecture was free and lavish and picturesque was discovered. In Florence the Pitti Palace has baroque ceilings; in Venice stands the tower of Santa María de Saludi . In the north, Turin is a baroque city where the Carignano Royal Palace , the Royal Pantheon and the Stupigni Castle are characteristic .

The City of the Vatican , also known as the Holy See, is located in Rome . Inside this is the Museum that keeps the artistic treasures of the Vatican and is divided into different independent collections. The most important are the Museo Pío Clementino, with Greek and Roman statuary; the Chiaramonti Gallery, with Greek and Renaissance sculptures; the Gregorian Museum, with Egyptian and Etruscan objects; the Pinacoteca, especially rich in Italian painting; the Library, founded in the XV century , etc. The Estancias and the Sistine Chapel that are also part of the Museum. This city includes St. Peter’s Basilica, the Vatican palaces and other less important buildings. Some buildings located outside its limits are also part of it, such as: the basilica of Santa María la Mayor; Saint John Lateran, Saint Paul Outside the Walls and the Villa and the Palace of Castel Gandolfo.

French Baroque

Palace of Versailles

In France, a generation of great painters emerged, influenced by Italian painting, but endowed with great personality, and whose art was oriented towards the reality of the world and was satisfied with the representation of familiar scenes ( Le Nain , Philippe de Champaigne , Georges de the Tour ). The only one who escapes this rule is Claude Lorrain , inspired by Italian pagan classicism.

Some characteristic buildings of French art were the beautiful palaces, of which the most imposing is that of the residence that Louis XIII had built in Versailles , originally a small brick construction that Louis XIV had embellished and expanded. So around the primitive central courtyard, Le Vau added two wings that reached the garden and between which was a large terrace. In this space, Manzart built a gallery that later became the hall of mirrors. Finally, the gardens were decorated by Lenotre, who arranged a series of stairs that descend from the palace to the garden.

Spanish Baroque

Immaculate Conception

The eighteenth century is the century of the baroque, in which Spain is experiencing the last consequences of the Council of Trent . It is a baroque that is not yet very ornate, because it was still experiencing Herrera’s influences. It is essentially religious, although there are also other themes and it represents the lower classes. From Ribera there is the “Immaculate Conception”; works with saints and martyrs, such as the “Martyrdom of Saint Bartholomew”; it also has mythological and ancient world themes like “Archimedes”; from the Old Testament, “Jacob’s Dream”. Zurbarán, Murillo and Valdés Leal, three painters representing an aspect of religion emerge from the Andalusian school.

Murillo represents the friendly aspect of religion, that is why he usually represents immaculate and children; from him we have the “Immaculate Conception”, “The Good Shepherd”, ” The Children of the Shell “; but he has another side of him that represents the crisis in Seville and represents a series of paintings, thus we have “The children eating melon”, “The children of the shell”, “The beggar boy”. However Valdés Leal reflects the macabre side of religion, as a work we have the canvases of the last stages.

From Zurbarán there are works such as “Santa Casilda”, “San Hugo in the refectory of punishments”, “Bodegón”, among many others. On the other hand, Diego Velázquez is a Sevillian with a Portuguese mother and his painting is characterized by its realism, he is a tenebrist but he makes two trips to Italy , he fights for light, color and comes to dominate the aerial perspective. In addition, he became a court painter. His works initially include: “El aguador de Sevilla”, “Los borrachos”, “La fragua de Vulcano”; It also represents a series of portraits: “The Count Duke of Olivares”, “The surrender of Breda” (image on the right), “Las Meninas”, “Las hilanderas”.

Architecture

Basilica of Guadalupe

The architecture baroque is that phase of the history of European architecture that was preceded by the Renaissance and the Mannerist ; It was generated in Rome during the 17th century and spread until the mid- 18th century by European absolutist states.

It is characterized by undulating surfaces, elliptical floors and interrupted interlocks, accompanied by an exaggeration of monumentality. Francis Ching described Baroque architecture as “a style of architecture that originated in Italy in the early 17th century and that prevailed variously in Europe and the New World for a century and a half, represented primarily by the free and sculptural use of orders classical and ornamental, the dynamic opposition and interpenetration of spaces, and the combined dramatic effects of architecture, sculpture, painting, and the decorative arts. ”

Santa Teresa in ecstasy

Spanish baroque architecture actively influenced South America and included among its main representative figures José de Churriguera (altarpiece of San Esteban de Salamanca), José de Ribera and eighteenth-century architects such as Hipólito Rovira , Casas Novoa and Leonardo de Figueroa . Among its manifestations are the Basilica of Guadalupe , the façade of El Sagrario de la Catedral , the Pocito chapel and the Puebla churches in Mexico and Peruan architecture in which the use of the Solomonic column is intermixed with that of the indigenous decorative leaf litter is that of “Santa Teresa in ecstasy” ( 1645 – 1652 ), created for the Cornaro Chapel of the church of Santa Maria della Vittoria, in Rome.

Bernini designed the entire chapel, and a filial space along the side of the church, for the Cornaro family. Santa Teresa, the focal point of the chapel, is located in a statue of soft white marble surrounded by a frame of polychrome marble architecture. This structure hides a window that illuminates the statue from above. In bas-relief, sculpted the Cornaro family is found in a group found in the opera paintings along the two side walls of the chapel. The setting places the viewer in front of the statue with the Cornaro family leaning out of their box seats and stretching their neck forward to see the mystical ecstasy of the saint.

Town planning

In 1585 the Pope Sixtus V began work for the urban transformation of Rome, charging Domenico Fontana connection between the main religious buildings of the city through large Roadway rectilinear axes.

The project, which was based on the ratification of Rome as a holy city, set the precedent for the interventions to be carried out in various European cities. The centralized planning of the ideal Renaissance city is contrasted by the vision of the Baroque capital city, more dynamic and open to its own limits, and at the same time a point of reference for the entire territory.

Churches

Morelia Cathedral

Among the churches, the starting point of baroque architecture can be considered the Church of the Gesù in Rome, built from 1568 on the Vignola project. The building, which represents a synthesis between Renaissance, Mannerist and Baroque architecture, fully met the new demands that arose after the Counter-Reformation : the longitudinal layout of the plan allowed it to accommodate the largest number of faithful, while the Latin cross plan with numerous chapels laterals was a return to the tradition of the Council of Trent.

On the other hand, the presence of a dome underlined the centrality of the space towards the back of the nave, and heralded the search for an integration between the longitudinal and the centralized scheme. Also the facade, built according to the project of Giacomo Della Porta , anticipated the most markedly baroque elements, comparable to those of the elevations of Santa Susana and San Andrés del Valle.

Another example of Baroque architecture is the Morelia Cathedral , in Michoacán , Mexico , built in the 17th century by Vincenzo Barrochio , it is one of the many Baroque cathedrals in Mexico. From this model they derived a series of churches with a centralized longitudinal plan or an elongated central plan, characterized by the longitudinal axis and by the presence of a catalyst element of the composition, generally a dome.

Palaces

Barberini Palace

In the civil architecture of the moment it is possible to distinguish between two types of noble constructions: the palace, generally located in the interior of the city, and the country villa. The Italian palace and its European derivatives remained faithful to the residential typology developed during the Renaissance, with a built body closed around an internal courtyard. The main facades were provided with central bodies highlighted and decorated by the use of giant orders, which had already been anticipated by Palladio. The axes of symmetry were extended inside the building, where the vestibule and the internal courtyard opened; for example, the longitudinal axis introduced in the Barberini Palace in Rome contributed to the definition of the plan and underlined the connection with the exterior of the building.

On the other hand, this palace constituted an important point in the development of the Italian palatial residential typology: the floor plan was H-shaped, and the entrance was produced by means of a deep atrium that was gradually narrowed successively, until reaching an elliptical hall which served as a nodal center to the entire palace.

Sculpture

Caravaggio

In baroque sculpture, as in architecture, a desire for movement is palpable. Unlike the mannerists whose movement was contained in plans, for the baroque sculptors the limbs and the garments of the figures move out vaporous, swollen, not without their showiness. It is developed through architectural creations, especially in statues, and also in the ornamentation of cities in squares, gardens or fountains. In Spain it was also manifested in religious images carved in wood, in the so-called imagery with which it was hoped to awaken the faith of the people.

In sculpture, it takes on decorative role in the general composition, and in the large wall paintings it corroborates the taste for theatricality, which also reflects the backgrounds of portraits and the great altars of churches, with their complicated structure and dramatic liveliness. Movement and dynamism stand out; the images show violent, slow and exalted passions. The valorization of those heroic motifs of the Renaissance culture grafted onto the Counter-Reformation and the painting by El Greco and Caravaggio introduced new religious and moral contents and contributed to a radical renewal of figurative expression.

The vocation of Saint Matthew

They are characterized by the tendency to represent the human figure with perfect objectivity in all its aspects, both in the most sublime and in the most vulgar; the realization of compositional schemes free of geometry, which collides with the balanced proportion of the Renaissance. Baroque sculpture is projected outward dynamically. This instability is manifested in the restlessness of the characters, in the scenes and in the breadth and magnificence of the clothing.

The representation of the nude in its pure state, as a frozen action, achieved with the influence of the asymmetric composition, where the diagonals, the slanted and oblique bodies, the foreshortening technique and the diffuse and intermittent contours, which direct the work towards the viewer with great expressionism; Great importance is given to the nude, creating compositional groups that allow women to oppose each other by shining light on the surfaces of the sculptures; and preferably wood , marble , among others.

Painting

Rembrandt’s Night Watch

The strengthening of the Catholic Church brought with it a vigorous resumption of strictly Renaissance motifs, and at the same time academic eclecticism and growing interest in decoration were making their way into painting. In this eclecticism and naturalism, of a decorative type, the allegories of the devoted paintings (the skull, the heavenly ecstasy, the gaze in painful or passionate abduction) have their origin, with their stabilization of the sacred iconography, and, in parallel, the cultivation of a series of themes of devotion and illustrations of the truth of the faith and the sacraments, fruit of a great demand by the Church. The expressiveness of the figures represented and the intense chiaroscuro are some of the most important characteristics of this period in painting.

New genres are developed such as still lifes, landscapes, portraits, Vanitas, genre paintings or customs, as well as the iconography of religious themes is enriched. There is a tendency and a search for realism that is combined with the theatrical and the gimmicky. Color, light and movement are the elements that define the pictorial form. Color predominates over the line. Even the effects of depth, perspective and volume are achieved more with the contrasts of light and color tones than with the sharp and defined lines of the drawing. Light becomes a fundamental element in baroque painting. The light draws or blurs the contours, also defines the environment, the atmosphere of the painting, and nuances the colors. The use of the chiaroscuro technique reaches perfection thanks to many Baroque painters.

Portrait of the Duke of Lerma de Rubens

It is intended to convey a feeling of movement. The compositions are complicated, unusual perspectives are adopted and the volumes are distributed asymmetrically. While the dynamics of the space, the vision of the scenes in depth, the structuring of the compositions using diagonals and the distribution of spots of light and color, configure the space as something dynamic, where contours are diluted and the figures lose relevance in front of to the unity of the scene.

At this time an absolute mastery of the pictorial technique occurs, both in oil painting on canvas and in fresco painting. This allows great realism to be achieved in pictorial representation. The imitation of reality theorized by the Renaissance is achieved but without the idealization and conception of the previous century.

The mastery of the technique, which manages to represent reality with great fidelity, makes it possible to sometimes try to deceive the viewer through trickery. The Baroque painter likes illusionist perspectives, especially in the Vaults, which are tried to “break” visually, by representing the sky and the suggestion of infinity, a pictorial resource that Mantegna had already used in the 15th century Husband’s Room , or Correggio in his Parma frescoes . These illusionist decorations proliferated throughout the second half of the century and continued beyond, in the Rococó , in large palaces throughout Europe., reinforcing the deception not only with pictorial elements but reinforcing it through the use of stucco and gilding.

Literature

Francisco de Quevedo

The baroque brings with it a renewal of techniques and styles. In Europe , and especially in Spain, the Counter-Reformation greatly influences this movement; the Italian expressions that came from the Renaissance are assimilated but at the same time they become Spanish and the techniques and styles adapt even more to the Spanish tradition.

The baroque poets of the 17th century continued to mix traditional stanzas with new ones, thus cultivating the trio, the quartet, the sonnet and the redondilla. They used copious rhetorical figures of all kinds, looking for an ornate formal disposition. It does not represent a break with Renaissance classicism, but rather the stylistic resources of Renaissance art are intensified, in search of an ornamental complication, in search of the exaggeration of the resources directed to the senses, until reaching a formal encystment.

The new baroque values ​​that are often summed up, in the use of metaphor and allegory, were actually found widely expressed in Baroque literature, and in the investigation of wonder, astonishment like Marinism, the use of artifices. The “Psychological Pain of Man” is a theme that later dissolved the Copernican and Lutheran revolutions in search of the anchors of the solid, the proof of the “last human power”, would be found in the art and architecture of the Baroque period.

Luis de Gongora

The privilege given to external forms had to compensate and balance the lack of volume that has been observed in many Baroque works: Marino’s “Maraviglia”, for example, is practically no longer purely made. Fantasy and imagination must be evoked in the viewer, in the reader, or in the listener. They all focused around the individual man, as a straight relationship between the artist, or directly art and its client. Art is then less distant from the spectator, while it approaches it more directly, solving the cultural gap that mutually distanced it and art. But increased attention to the individual, also created in these schemes some important genres such as Romance (the novel) and allowed popular or local forms of art, especially dialect literature, was revealed. InItaly This movement towards the individual alone (which some define a “cultural descent”, while others indicate it as a possible cause for the classical opposition to the Baroque) generated the definitive replacement of Latin by Italian.

In Spain, Baroque writers are part of the Golden Age . Naturalism and sharply critical views in Spanish society are common among writers like Quevedo , while culteranismo authors emphasize the importance of form with complicated images and the use of hyperbaton. In Catalonia, the Baroque took hold also in the Catalan language, with representatives including poets and playwrights such as Francisco Fontanella and Francisco Vicente García as well as the only book of the emblem “Athenaeum of Grandeur” by José Romaguera . In colonial Spanish America some of the best-known Baroque writers wereSor Juana Inés de la Cruz and Bernardo de Balbuena , in Mexico , and Juan de Espinosa Medrano and Juan del Valle y Caviedes , in Peru .

Sor Juana Ines De La Cruz

In the Portuguese Empire, the most famous writer of the Baroque era was Father Antonio Vieira , a Jesuit who lived in Brazil during the 18th century . The writers Gregorio de Matos and Francisco Rodrigues Lobo supported him .

In English literature, metaphysical poets represented a closely related movement; their poetry searched for rare metaphors that they likewise examined in minute and extensive detail. His verse also manifested a flavor for the paradox, and deliberately the inventive and strange twists of the phrases.

Sixteenth-century literature was expressed in a serene and balanced style; the baroque of the XVII comes to destabilize that serenity and diverse forces come into conflict. Faced with Renaissance classicism, the Baroque valued absolute freedom to create and distort shapes, conceptual condensation and complexity in expression. All this was intended to amaze or amaze the reader. Two stylistic currents exemplify these characters: conceptism and culteranismo. Both are, in fact, two facets of baroque style that share the same purpose: to create complication and artifice. [5]

Baltasar Gracian

Conceptism affects, above all, the plane of thought. Its theorist and definer was Baltasar Gracián , who in sharpness and ingenuity defined the concept as “that act of understanding, which expresses the correspondences found between objects”. To achieve this end, the conceptist authors used rhetorical resources, such as paradox, antithesis, paronomasia, metaphor or ellipsis. They also frequently used dilogy, a resource that consists of using a signifier with two possible meanings, and polysemy. Its main representative was Francisco Quevedo y Villegas .

Culteranismo is concerned, above all, with the expression and the search for formal brilliance. Its most outstanding characters are the Latinization of language and the intensive use of metaphors and images. The latinization of language is achieved fundamentally through the intensive use of hyperbaton and the taste for long sentences and for including cultisms and neologisms, such as, for example, brilliance, candor, harmony, and foreword.

The metaphor is the base of the culterana poetry. The chaining of metaphors or series of images has the objective of escaping from everyday reality to settle in the artificial and idealized universe of poetry. It also highlights the use of a dark and difficult style presided over by an accumulation and intensification of resources. Mythological allusions are also frequent. Its main exponent was Luis de Góngora .

Theater

William Shakespeare

The Baroque Theater is characterized by its thematic plurality. Subjects of the medieval epic, of universal and Spanish history, subjects of daily living, both of political, social and religious news. [6] In the theater, the detailed assumptions, the multiplicity of turns of the surface, and the variety of characteristics of the mannerisms (the tragedies of Shakespeare , for example) were replaced by the Opera that mixed all the arts together in one all unified.

The theater evolved in the Baroque era and became a multi-media experience, using a real architectural space. The phase could change from a romantic garden to the interior of a palace in seconds. The entire space became a devised select area that only allowed users to view a specific action, while hiding all machinery and technology, mainly ropes and pulleys. This technology affected the volume of the narration of the pieces made, while searching for a better solution through the machines. The gods were finally able to – literally – come down from heaven and rescue the hero from the most dangerous extreme, even in the most absurd situations.

The term “Theatrum Mundi” also emerged (the world is a phase), the social and political kingdom in the real world is manipulated in exactly the same way, the actor and the machines are the present-limits of what is being presented in the phase, while hiding all the machinery that makes the actions that happen selectively.

Alex Carpentier

The films Vatel, Farinelli, and the organizing of the Orpheus de Monteverdi at the Gran Teatre del Liceu in Barcelona offer a good idea of ​​the style of productions of the Baroque period. The American musician William Christie and Les Arts Florissants have carried out an extensive investigation of the entire French Baroque Opera, using pieces by Carpentier and Lully, among others who were extremely faithful to the originals created in the 17th century .

The artistic baroque openly contrasts with the ideal of harmony, proportion and measure advocated by the Renaissance. Its main characteristics are made up by Dynamism, where the artist wants to create a constant sensation of movement, as opposed to the predominance of straight lines in Renaissance art, the Baroque uses, above all, the curved line; Theatricality, where the artist tries to move the spectator emotionally, and for this he uses hyperrealistic procedures, this intention is seen, for example, in the representation of recumbent Christs and in all the sacred imagery; Decorativism and sumptuousness, is where the artist attends equally to the essential and the accidental. Hence his thoroughness in the composition of small details and his taste for ornamentation; and Contrast, where the artist manifests himself contrary to Renaissance balance and uniformity. Its ideal is to host different visions in the same composition, and even antagonistic, on the same subject. In the mythological subject pictures, for example, the gods appear mixed with characters of the people.

Music

Johann Sebastian Bach

The term Baroque is also used to designate the style of music composed during a period when Baroque art was developed, but it normally spans a period slightly later. Baroque music is the musical style related to a European cultural era, ranging from the birth of the opera in the 16th century (approximately in 1585 ) to the middle of the 18th century (approximately until the death of Johann Sebastian Bach , in 1750 ) .

Many musical forms were born in that era, such as the concert and the symphony. Forms like sonata, cantata, and oratorio flourished. Also, the opera was outside the experimentation of the Florentine Camerata, the creators of monody tried to recreate the theater arts of the ancient Greeks. An important technique used in baroque music was the use, under ground, of a repeated bass line. Dido’s Lament by Henry Purcell is a famous example of this technique.

It is one of the longest, most fertile, revolutionary and important musical epochs in Western music, as well as the most influential. Its most notable feature is probably the use of basso continuo and the monumental development of tonal harmony, which profoundly differentiates it from previous modal genres.

 

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