A hairdresser or barber shop is a place where various aesthetic services are offered, mainly those related to hair or hair, but others such as shaving , waxing , manicures , pedicures , etc. are also often performed . When it comes to many different services it is often called a beauty salon.
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- 1 Beginnings
- 2 History of the hairdressing salon
- 3 Hairdressing tools
- 4 Sources
Hair was seen thousands of years ago as a powerful magical or ceremonial element. In our days, still some of the considered primitive cultures consider that the soul of each person is in their hair. The magical-religious importance of hair meant that in ancient times its care had considerable importance in many societies, giving rise to the development and emergence of hairdressing.
The barber or hairdresser will ensure that the [stylist’s] guidelines are impeccable. A good hairdresser with taste and style can advise you as well as a stylist on the color , volume or style of your hair. Hairdressing supplies are classified into five essential groups: main tools, auxiliary tools, laboratory tools, appliances, and furniture material.
History of the hairdressing salon
It is possible that the first tool used by man to cut his hair was the extremely sharp flints of flint stone , resulting from the laborious process of obtaining cutting material from hitting some stones with others. The haircut was undoubtedly due to practical or ceremonial matters and had nothing to do with the uniquely aesthetic motifs of later times. Spines fish , animal teeth and twigs from various plants were primitive combs those people, it is supposed that even came to use blood , fat and vegetable dyes as colorants to dye your hair, always for ritual reasons.
Egypt The oldest reference that exists on the existence of cosmetic care on hair refers us to Egypt , where the most significant changes in hair cosmetics began to be made. In this culturally great nation, the people – as in many others – peeled their heads, although not so the priests and members of the ruling elite, who dedicated themselves to taking care of their hair playing with different hairstyles and shades. The wigs also had their boom, and the traditional ones with straight hair prevailed, with bangs, cut very evenly in a length that reached the shoulders. But another great contribution of the Egyptians was in terms of coloration, since they discovered the usefulness ofhenna , which allowed them to obtain reddish and mahogany colors.
Greece The wonderful Greek development – which until now is amazing to us – also included personal care. The Greeks made the cult of beauty fundamental: in this way they cultivated their body in search of a physical ideal, and also their face and hair. The hairstyles had many details, of which we have reference thanks to the statues, which show us short locks that encircled the forehead, or long gathered manes and a lot, but a lot, movement expressed through the undulation of the hair (in this, the Greeks were quite different from the Egyptians). For the first time, hairdressing schools appear. However, slaves were responsible for keeping these heads as beautifully as possible, as thoughtful as flirtatious.
Rome The land of Romulus and Remus was a direct heir to Greek tastes. So it was that he also adopted the concept of physical beauty and, therefore, the concern to see how his hair looked. An impact for Roman women occurred when they saw the captives brought by Julius Caesar de las Galias, who wore beautiful blond hair, which they wanted to imitate. From there, many tests were carried out to clarify the tone of the hair, predominantly the compound of goat tallow and beech ash, although it was not too healthy for the punished hair .
The hairstyles were changing, and this is natural considering the long duration of the Roman Empire and the influence it was receiving in contact with the different peoples it was conquering. In any case, the most common ones can be grouped, such as the hair surrounding the head , the mane with curlers and the hair tied up and braided. Already at this time, hairdressing was practiced permanently, emerging specialties depending on what was done: hairstyle, color, hairpieces, etc.
Middle Ages from the 5th to the 15th century This epoch was born when the long domination of Rome over the world ended . The invasion of the barbarians ends with that empire that had dominated for several centuries and imposed its culture on a large part of the western world and, at the same time, Christianity began to prevail in the different states, austerity triumphing over shaving and coquetry itself.
Little progress was made during the Middle Ages in what would later become the powerful beauty industry. Since the attitude was very demure (it is the time of the chastity belts, of the Crusades and of the knights), the women limited themselves to using their hair with a simple parting in the middle, and with braids – many times false – that surrounded their heads. The change in hair color was not sought too much because it was not very well seen. In addition, there was a custom of wearing robes that completely covered the head, which also prevented a considerable development of the hairdresser at that time.
Renaissance from the XV century to the XVIII century As its name indicates, in this period certain customs of the Ancient Age are reborn , and with it certain tastes that were very similar to the Greeks and the Romans, such as the cult of beauty and personal grooming. Unlike in the Middle Ages , in the Renaissance, female hair became the center of creativity for hairdressers who “played” with it with much more sophisticated hairstyles and numerous accessories : hairnets , crowns, false braids, intertwined jewelry. Also, facial cosmetics is gaining momentum, and creams and ointments are numerous, many of which are brought from far away countries. For the first time, it is possible to speak of a fashion that is quite widespread in Europe , and that is imposed by the Venetians: the taste for red hair, surprisingly extends outside of Italy . To achieve this tone, mixtures of black sulfide , honey and alum were made. Then the hair was exposed to the sun so that the mixture would act on it. But they were not only limited to this color. The woman could already choose, according to her tastes, among other shades: ash blonde, the “golden thread” (one of the most coveted), and saffron.
17th and 18th centuries Paris is the city that becomes the center of all the tastes and styles of beauty that prevail in the rest of the world. The demands of French men and women are so great with their hairstyles that it is at this time that the art of hairdressing gets a huge boost. The famous white wigs were imposed, which were accompanied by very complicated accessories that included even models, difficult to transport when moving from one place to another. With a mixture of talc and starchThese wigs were powdered to make them look as white as possible, and to curl them, the hairdressers controlled their wicks in cylinders that they heated in bakery ovens. This is how the permanent hot is born. This method could not be used on natural hair , which was hidden under those inseparable hairpieces.
XIX century It is a fundamental century in the evolution of the civilization of the West. In 1789 the French Revolution occurs , so this period after that great event will be governed by its philosophy, which emphasized simplicity, as opposed to noble customs that the revolutionaries despised. So the long tradition of wigs is completely set aside, everyone starting to show off their natural hair. But something arises that will also shock the hairdresser and it is hydrogen peroxide ( 1867 ), much less aggressive than what had been used since the ancient Greeks. Hairdressers increase home visits as a form of work.
20th century It is a century that we could classify as very changing, but which is linked by something: the definitive birth of fashion . Each decade will have its style; the cult of the image – accompanied by the birth of the mass media – will prevail in every order. It will be about identifying with feminine or masculine ideals that will be seen on the big screens or on television, and in the magazines of the show. The salons are definitely born. In the early years, garçon hair for women was a great feature, and this was because she needed to be comfortable, to comb her hair quickly, since, thanks to the industrial revolution, women had entered the job market , and I didn’t have that much time for grooming. Then the hair grew a little, with beautiful waves, deep curlers or straight hair, for women, according to taste. In the case of men, something very novel happens: after having suffered two world wars in which the military style imposed the way of cutting the hair of the “American average” (soldier style), it is found that in the 60s and 70 , with the emergence of the Vétales and thehippies , manage to free themselves from rigid cuts and let their hair grow to lengths previously unthought of. Now, at the beginning of the 21st century , fashion is no longer talked about but rather a trend, that is, it tries to suggest rather than impose. And that people have the freedom to choose the color , the texture, the length that suits them best, whether it be a man or a woman. This way of thinking and acting has the positive that it allows hairdressers to display all the creativity they want to create true works of art, always thinking of the current client, more demanding than any client from other times.
We can classify hairdressing supplies into five essential groups to facilitate your study:
- Main tools: They are those instruments with which the hairdressing tasks are carried out: combs, brushes, scissors, tweezers, etc.
- Auxiliary tools: They are those objects that are used to facilitate work with the former and also as protective material: curlers, hairnets, gloves, hats, etc.
- Laboratory supplies: These are the materials used to make the chemical substance mixtures (dyes, hydrogen peroxide, etc.): glass containers, litmus paper, etc.
- Apparatology: Set of devices designed to carry out hairdressing techniques, as well as for the detection and treatment of hair problems that occur most frequently in the Hairdressing salon: punches, vaporizers, sterilizers, micro-monitors, infrared lamps , etc.
- Furniture material: these are the elements of the furniture that participate in the execution of the hairdressing tasks and in customer service: washing machines, auxiliary tables, mirrors, armchairs, etc.