Aviation is a term applied to the science and practice of the flight of aircraft heavier than air , including airplanes , gliders , helicopters , ornithopters, autogyros , fixed- wing aircraft, variable geometry, takeoff and vertical landing (VTOL) and short ( STOL). They are distinguished from devices that are lighter than air, including free aerostats (usually spherical), captives (almost always elongated) and airships .
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- 1 Planners’ invention
- 2 History of aviation:
- 3 Brief chronology of aviation development:
- 4 Air Velocipede in Cuba
- 5 Aviation in wars
- 6 Cuba and aviation in the neocolonia
- 1 Mercenary invasion by Playa Girón
- 7 See also
- 8 Source
Invention of the Gliders
After the invention of the gliders by Otto Lilienthal ( 1853 ), it was natural to install an internal combustion engine in a glider. The Orville and Wilbur Wright brothers corrected the design of the glider, invented the rudders of depth, direction and spoilers, and designed new lightweight, but powerful engines. Wright achieved success with the flight of the Flyer the 17 of December of 1903 , at Kitty Hawk, Carolina of the North , when Orville flew 12 seconds, and toured 36,5 m about 3 m tall and a speed of 48 km / h. In France , theOf October 23 of 1906 , the Brazilian Alberto Santos Dumont flew his 14 bis in a circuit of 60 m at a height of 2-3 m.
Motor aviation began in 1890 , the year in which the Frenchman Climent Ader, with his plane Eole, managed to take off, fly a short space and land. In 1903, the Wright brothers built the first practical and manageable aircraft , with which they made flights lasting more than half an hour.
Brief chronology of aviation development:
- In 1909 Blériot crossed the English Channel for the first time.
- In 1912 Roland Garros reached 5,000 m high.
- In 1926 the Spanish Plus Ultra seaplane broke the world record for distance with scales flying from Spain to Argentina .
- In 1927 Charles Lindbergh made the flight Paris – New York without stops for the first time .
- In 1929 the first jet aircraft was built, used, the first years for the transport of goods and for military purposes.
- In 1951 the first commercial jet aircraft was manufactured: the Comet I.
- In 1957 the Tupolev 114 , the first passenger airbus, was presented in Paris .
- In 1970 the great Jumbos entered service.
- In 1976 the Concorde made its first commercial flight between Paris and Rio de Janeiro .
Air Velocipede in Cuba
As early as the 25 of March of 1893 , the Cuban Arturo Comas proposed to José Martí use an aerial velocipede moved by a rope clock, designed by him for shelling night on cities and camps Spaniards in the War of Independence to starting point, but the project was premature to be carried out. At that time the airplanes were built empirically; there was no scientific basis for it. A significant role in the development of aerodynamics and flight theory played by Russian scientists N. Ye. Zhukovski and SA Chapliaguin.
Aviation in wars
During the First World War , increasingly efficient airships were used as exploration and linking devices, bombers and as bomber or fighter hunters. With these inventions the era of combat aviation was inaugurated. In the period between wars, military aviation of combat and transport experienced a remarkable development, both in its range and ceiling of flight, as in its speed and ability to carry weapons and payload. The first plane that took off from a ship did so in 1910 , from an improvised platform on the American cruise ship Birmingham and later, the same pilot made the first landing on the American cruise ship Pennsylvania .
The first ship destined as an aircraft carrier was the British battle cruiser Furious, transformed for that destination. The first vessel designed to allow landings and take-offs was the British merchant ship HMS Aarhus, launched in 1918 . The role played by aviation in the Italian invasion of Ethiopia led military theorists such as Giulio Dohuet in El Dominio del Aire ( 1921 ), to anticipate and even overestimate their future. The American William “Billy” Mitchell, advocated an independent air force of the army, foresaw the possibility of a Japanese air strike from aircraft carriers against the Hawaiian islands, anticipated strategic bombing and massive air landings.
In practice, the existence of high-capacity transport aviation and the improvement of parachutes gave rise to air landing operations, of which the Soviets were pioneers when in 1935 , during some maneuvers, they launched a paratrooper battalion. Aviation, along with the tanks and the motorization of transport, printed a new dynamism to the war and gave rise to the lightning war. At the same time, the concept of air dominance became a premise for offensive, land and naval operations. So much so, that the Battle (aerial) of England ( 1940 ), which decided the supremacy of the Royal Air Force over the Luftwaffeand prevented the German invasion of the British Isles, played an important role in the early World War II on the western front.
An essential element in the Barbarossa Plan was the neutralization of Soviet aviation on land, which gave the Germans an unquestionable advantage in the first two years of the war. From May of 1942 , massive air raids launched from England against military, economic and political objectives throughout the depth of the German territory opened a new chapter in military strategy. Aviation played a very prominent role during naval actions and amphibious operations in the Pacific theater, and was the means used for launching an almost defeated Japan of the unnecessary and genocidal atomic bombs of Hiroshima andNagasaki .