Andréy Konstantínovich Gueim . ( 1958 ) Dutch physicist of German origin from the Russian Volga who is known for his work on graphene, the development of gecko tape, and demonstrations of diamagnetic levitation.
The 5 of October of 2010 , was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics together with Konstantin Novoselov for their work on graphene, previously the year 2000 has won an Ig Nobel for getting a frog levitate with magnets.
Becoming the first person to win a Nobel Prize and an Ig Nobel Prize .
The Nobel Prize in Physics for 2010 was awarded to Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov for their groundbreaking discoveries on the two – dimensional material graphene.
The graphene is a alotropía of the carbon ; which consists of a flat hexagonal tessellation (like a honeycomb) formed by carbon atoms and covalent bonds that would form from the superposition of the sp2 hybrids of the bonded carbons.
The sp2 hybridization is the one that best explains the bond angles, at 120 °, of the hexagonal structure. Since each of the carbons has four valence electrons in the hybridized state, three of those electrons will be housed in the sp2 hybrids , forming the structure’s single covalent bond skeleton, and the excess electron will be housed in an atomic orbital of the type p perpendicular to the plane of the hybrids. The lateral overlap of these orbitals is what would lead to the formation of π-type orbitals. Some of these combinations, among others, would give rise to a gigantic delocalized molecular orbital between all the carbon atoms that make up the graphene layer.
The name comes from GRAPHITE + ENO. In reality, the graphite structure can be thought of as a stack of a large number of overlapping graphene sheets . The bonds between the various stacked graphene layers are due to Van der Waals forces and interactions between the π orbitals of the carbon atoms .
Graphite crystal structure in which the interactions between the different layers of condensed aromatic rings are observed.
In graphene, the length of the carbon-carbon bonds is approximately 1.42 Å. It is the basic structural component of all other graphitic elements including graphite, nanotubes carbon and fullerenes. This structure can also be considered as an extremely extensive aromatic molecule in both directions of space, that is, it would be the limiting case of a family of flat polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules called graphenes.