Amuzgos

The Amuzgos live in the states of Oaxaca and Guerrero and are called with the same denomination of their language: Amuzgo.

Summary

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  • 1 History
  • 2 Meaning
  • 3 Features
  • 4 Location
  • 5 Language of the Amuzgo
  • 6 Customs and traditions
  • 7 Music
  • 8 Housing
  • 9 Clothing
  • 10 Social organization
  • 11 Crafts
  • 12 Religion
  • 13 Infrastructure
  • 14 Sources

History

Some authors indicate that, by the 14th century , in what is now Guerrero , the Yopis , Mixtecs and Amuzgos were already settled on the Costa Chica . Andrés Fernández Gatica highlights that the Amuzgos lived in freedom until the 11th century, and from the year 1100 they were subjugated by the Mixtecs . For 300 years they paid tribute (cotton, textiles, feathers, animal skins, gold, corn , beans and Chile ), the first Mixtec and the Aztecs. Around 1350, the Aztecs exercised total control over the Amuzgo territory.

Meaning

The Amuzgos live in the states of Oaxaca and Guerrero and are called by the same name as their language: Amuzgo. Each city of Amuzgo has its specific name, for example in San Pedro Amuzgos, they are called Tzjon Non, which means village of line, soft or standard thread; in Santa María Ipalapa they are called Tzo \ ‘tío, which means Camarón River. According to some studies, the Amuzgo or hot flashes mean that there are bookstores or libraries. According to Fernández Gatica, Amuzgo means between hills, a name attributed to a city and then generalized to denote an ethnic group.

features

The Amuzga family is one of the smaller families of the Ottoman stock. There are three important variants of Amuzgo, spoken in the Sierra Madre del Sur, where the states of Guerrero and Oaxaca meet. The variety spoken in the southeast of the state of Guerrero, near Xochistlahuaca, has more speakers than the others. The other two are spoken in the southwestern part of the state of Oaxaca, in San Pedro Amuzgos and Santa María Ipalapa. Amuzgos bases its economy mainly on subsistence agriculture and artisan industries, such as ceramics and embroidery and weaving. They are known internationally for their complex fabrics, where they use geometric drawings or representations of small animals. The name “amuzgo” comes from the Nahuatl word “amoxco”, which can be translated as “place of books”. If this explanation is correct, the word probably refers to Xochistlahuaca as the political and religious head of the region at the time of the Spanish conquest. But this is not the indigenous name of the Amuzgos. In Xochistlahuaca, people call their language ñomndaa; in San Pedro Amuzgos the name is ñonndaa or jñon \ ‘ndaa. Like the other Ottomanguean languages, the Amuzga language is tonal; that is, the pronounced is so important that the change can also change the meaning of the word in a completely different word. The audio system uses nasalization and a rare contrast between ballistic and controlled syllables. (There is a similar contrast in the Chinantec languages.) There are a moderate number of prefixes and suffixes in some words (especially verbs). The order in the sentences is: Verb-Subject-Object,

Location

 

Ethnic group that spans a wide geographic area of ​​the Costa Chica, corresponding to the states of Guerrero and Oaxaca. Its language presents a lot of similarity with another close one: the Mixtec. In general, its members are bilingual, as they also speak Spanish. It is a group with little economic and cultural development. They live in poverty, with high rates of morbidity and mortality, especially in the childhood phase. In a rudimentary way, they are dedicated to agriculture and fishing. They practice temporary outpatient practice in commerce. They make their clothes, which were made into a typical Guerrero dress, using the waist loom. Percussion instruments accompany most religious ceremonies. They include in their traditions the dances of Machomula and El Tigre. They preserve many primitive customs and rites. (see article: Triquis). The Amuzgos make clay objects such as pots, comales, pots and jugs; Nets and backpacks, bamboo and palm basketry. In Xochistlahuaca they make machetes with inscriptions from the region. Many women make textile crafts made on the waist fabric. Amaxos de Oaxaca, along with other indigenous groups, that form small cultural and linguistic enclaves in the Mixteca region. The Amuzgos region lies between approximately 500 and 900 meters, a topography that crosses the mountains of Yacuyagua. It is crossed by the Ometepec, Arena, Casapulla, San Pedro and Santa Catarina rivers, whose waters flow into the Pacific Ocean. The predominant climate in the plains and small elevations is the tropical suburb, with abundant rains during the months of June and September. The vegetation is chaparral type with species such as barrequillo, mallow, chia, zapotillo, royal palm and coconut. The fauna is made up of mammals, reptiles and a great variety of birds. In the case of species such as badgers, tatus, raccoons, tiger, jaguatirica, coyotes, lion, tamanduás, pigs, rabbits, squirrels, iguanas and several types of snakes, pigeons are, the zenith, the parrot, the arara, the gavon , the vulture, the carrot, the owl, the owl and the owl. The climatic conditions and the type of soil favor the cultivation of corn, beans, peppers, sesame, peanuts, squash and sugar cane; and the production of banana, avocado, melon, watermelon, orange, lemon, Cuajinicuil, lemon, mango, Byrsonima crassifolia, papaya, tamarind, mandarin, coconut, plum, coffee, cocoa, mamey sapote. The main business is agricultural and artisan work. In some regions, the indigenous people are heads of cattle, goats, pigs and poultry, as opposed to the mestizos who run an important cattle ranch. The land used for the growth of the forest is larger than irrigation. Grass on slopes and landslides is used to feed livestock. In the Amuzga region, three types of land ownership are identified: municipal, ejidal, and private. Possession of this causes frequent conflicts between Indians and managers. Amuzgos suffered the radical and violent extirpation of their countries by mestizosna, in cooperation with the agrariska authorities they make use of their local political power to carry out uppbruket of the municipal countries. pigs and poultry, as opposed to mestizos who run an important livestock. The land used for the growth of the forest is larger than irrigation. Grass on slopes and landslides is used to feed livestock. In the Amuzga region, three types of land ownership are identified: municipal, ejidal, and private. Possession of this causes frequent conflicts between Indians and managers. Amuzgos suffered the radical and violent extirpation of their countries by mestizosna, in cooperation with the agrariska authorities they make use of their local political power to carry out uppbruket of the municipal countries. pigs and poultry, as opposed to mestizos who run an important livestock. The land used for the growth of the forest is larger than irrigation. Grass on slopes and landslides is used to feed livestock. In the Amuzga region, three types of land ownership are identified: municipal, ejidal, and private. Possession of this causes frequent conflicts between Indians and managers. Amuzgos suffered the radical and violent extirpation of their countries by mestizosna, in cooperation with the agrariska authorities they make use of their local political power to carry out uppbruket of the municipal countries. Grass on slopes and landslides is used to feed livestock. In the Amuzga region, three types of land ownership are identified: municipal, ejidal, and private. Possession of this causes frequent conflicts between Indians and managers. Amuzgos suffered the radical and violent extirpation of their countries by mestizosna, in cooperation with the agrariska authorities they make use of their local political power to carry out uppbruket of the municipal countries. Grass on slopes and landslides is used to feed livestock. In the Amuzga region, three types of land ownership are identified: municipal, ejidal, and private. Possession of this causes frequent conflicts between Indians and managers. Amuzgos suffered the radical and violent extirpation of their countries by mestizosna, in cooperation with the agrariska authorities they make use of their local political power to carry out uppbruket of the municipal countries.

Language of the Amuzgo

The National Institute of Indigenous Languages ​​(INALI) distinguishes four variants of Amuzgo: Amuzgo del Norte (Amuzgo Norte, Amuzgo de Guerrero or Xochixtlahuaca). Southern Amuzgo (Southern Amuzgo, sometimes classified as a subdial of the Guerrero Amuzgo). Alto Amuzgo oriental (Amuzgo alto este, also called Amuzgo de Oaxaca or Amuzgo de San Pedro Amuzgos). Lower East of Amuzgo (Amuzgo Bajo del Este, also called Amuzgo de Ipalapa). The Amuzga language belongs to the Ottomangue group and its linguistic Mixtec subfamily to which Triqui, Cuicatec, Pussy-Popoloca, Mazateco, Ixcateco and Mixtec also belong.

Customs and traditions

The population of the Guerrero unit consists of four ethnic groups: Mixtecs, Tlapanecs and Amuzgos, Nahua and mestizo and less Afromestizo. Due to the heterogeneity of its population, the state of Guerrero has very different traditions in each region. Music and dance also have very special characteristics in which you can appreciate the mixture of the different ethnic groups that lived together in the unit. In Tierra Caliente the taste and the son are danced. Both the so-called “Sonecillo Tierra Caliente” and the syrup bread brought the Spanish artistic caravans. Fandango in Tixtla takes place in the festivals of the chapels or churches in the neighborhood or in the civil festivals. The musicians come with harp, vihuelas and tapas cajon. The platform is usually surrounded by matches or chairs, where the dancing women sit and the musicians stand at one end. The dancers stay. In this region, the characteristic dances children of Chilean Artesa in, walks, pigeons, zapateadosna, syrup and the hall of the great Spanish and South American influence and domestic. The wind bands, called “Chile Frito”, are very well received by the guerrillas, since they are the main entertainers of fans of popular festivities. The dances of the Tlacololeros, the Tecuanes, the Viejitos, the Manueles, the Twelve Peers of France, are the most traditional dances of the entity. In the municipality, two religions are practiced: the Catholic and the Protestant; the latter was disclosed by members of the Summer Institute of Linguistics in the 1940s. They commemorate Saint Michael the Archangel on September 29, patron of the city; November 1 and 2, the Day of the Dead; on December 12 for the Virgin of Guadalupe, and in Cozoyoapan San Sebastián is celebrated on January 20. Origin of the Costa Chica, Guerrero, called channels, adopted and adapted to the feeling and the Tixtleco style, “from Zacate”, and the syrup are dance as a prelude to a son (right or imitation) Palomo or Chilean, giving rise to fandango in the neighborhoods of Tixtla. The main parties are organized around the Catholic saints. In San Pedro Amuzgos, the protest party is on June 29; Xochistlahuaca was celebrated in San Miguel on September 29, Santa Ana, the Virgen del Rosario, Las Ánimas, San José, the Virgen de los Dolores, Santa Cruz, Santa Faz and the Precious Blood; Santa María in Ipalapa and San Sebastián in Cozoyapan. Further, these communities celebrate Carnival, Easter, All Saints and Christmas. The main parties are organized around the Catholic saints. In San Pedro Amuzgos, the protest party is on June 29; In Xochistlahuaca, San Miguel is celebrated on September 29, Santa Ana, the Virgen del Rosario, the Angels, San José, the Virgen de los Dolores, the Holy Cross, the Divine Face and the Precious Blood. ; to Santa Maria in Ipalapa and to San Sebastián in Cozoyapan. The butlers in charge of the party pay the expenses of the food that will be invited to all participants. This gives prestige and the possibility of occupying some other position in the future. The Amuzgos are neighbors of the Mixtecs, the Tlapanecs and the Nahuas. Relations with them were not cordial, especially with the Mixtecs,

Music

Within the traditions of Oaxaca, with a sealed seal, the many dances and dances are marked either in some social events or in the celebration of certain celebrations in the church. The sense of ritual and religious ceremony around which dance has been created since primitive times is one that informs and encourages a spirit of domestic choreography. Their dances obtain the profile of an ancestor, inherited from practices that the colony could not resist. In almost all regions of the state, the dance manifestations, the different characteristics and the “Tiger Dance” performed by the Putla Amuzgo are no exception. It is hung and seems to have been inspired by a hunting motif, derived from the mutual harassment of dogs and jaguars, represented by “güenches” costumes worn by these animals. She is the coastal Sones and original pieces suitable for the other steps, in addition to footwork and the revolution counter of the remarkable development, such as side stones and the torso leans forward, leading the dancers with their hands placed on the waist, full turns in this mode, and Gently, the handkerchief sweeping forward bending attitude is worn on the right hand. The dancers sit on a hook at the end of each part of the dance. It is the common presence of one or two subjects in bizarre clothing. They are “güenches” or “fields”, responsible for entertaining the public with their jokes and extravagances. string or wind, a simple violin and parrandas or, as occurs in some Pueblo Tecas dances, ancient Shawm instruments: When it comes to the musical accompaniment of dances, different sets are used. The group of chirimiteros de Yatzona is well deserved throughout the region.

living place

In the municipal capital of San Pedro Amuzgos there are rectangular houses with adobe walls or partitions, sheet or asbestos roofs, cardboard or tile. There are several rooms and a kitchen-dining room, or a single room that is used as a kitchen and bedroom. Furniture depends on family income. The houses in the villages are circular, with vertically placed stem walls, some of them towed with mud, roof and palm grass or on the ground, with a door or a scent table. Several houses are made of a single room that serves as a kitchen and bedroom, where there is only one fire, and a bed with hairpins and sticks covered with a rug suffered. Work tools and some kitchen utensils hang on the walls. Most houses have an altar on which various Catholic images are placed. It is common that the ranches do not have potable water, electricity or drainage services; people there bring water sources and use candles or ocots to light. he distribution of housing in San Pedro Amuzgos is compact in the center and dispersed in the periphery. In Santa María Ipalapa it is scattered. This distribution allows them to keep pets and grow medicinal and ornamental plants in the home garden. Amuzga dishes contain mainly corn and local products. The chocolate is made from cocoa planted in the area, this is due to the metate and adds sugar to the sugar; Usually the “present” that is given at the wedding is taken and included. Tamales are a basic part of Amuzga food and are made in various ways: corn, sweet and salty; corn with coastal chili and chicken; with endokos, which is a variation of crustaceans similar to shrimp, but larger and bulkier. Another traditional Amuzga pot from this region is known as “Cabeza Viejo,” which consists of pieces of meat wrapped in yerba santa, steamed. They are also usually present, either in family or social celebrations, meat grill and grill. The latter is prepared more often, because the goat is a common cattle in the region and the most available price.

Clothing

Women wear full-skirt calico in bright colors, decorated with frieze strips that form the bottom; They have contrasting colors and are scarlet on a green fabric background or pink on blue, turquoise on yellow. Amuzga at home only wear this skirt, the lower waist over the left shoulder so that the arms and right shoulder are free. When put on the huipil and the skirt looks oblique below. Amuzga kept her hair down on her neck, then twisted and twisted around her head. They do not wear the knot on the forehead and hide under the ends of the hair. Men’s shirts trimmed at their shoulders and cuffs with ample knit work, knitted in white. The casket is two-leaf with a folded strap around the neck and is only joined with a short stitch so you can tie the two ends at the waist. The pants are quite high and up to the ankle, they also have the same work on the lower part of decorating the shoulders with the same rhomboid drawings. In Zacualpan, the shirt is sewn on the trunk, two are sewn on the shoulders and sides, the seam under the armpits does not reach the coast and ending the rest without sewing they are attached to the hip on one side almost always to the right. The neck is cut into a T-shape and the two triangles are folded inward and sewn. the shirt is sewn on the trunk, two are sewn on the shoulders and sides, the seam under the armpits does not reach the coast and finishing the rest without sewing they are attached to the hip on one side almost always on the right. The neck is cut into a T-shape and the two triangles are folded inward and sewn. the shirt is sewn on the trunk, two are sewn on the shoulders and sides, the seam under the armpits does not reach the coast and finishing the rest without sewing they are attached to the hip on one side almost always on the right. The neck is cut into a T-shape and the two triangles are folded inward and sewn.

Social organization

The basis of social organization lies in the nuclear family and the extended family. In these communities, spontaneous solidarity aid groups or “hand turned” arise among family members and friends to try to solve the immediate majordomier problems, marriage, death, crops and the construction of their houses. Men marry at an average age of 17 and women at 15. In some cases it is the parents who choose the partner for their children and who use a larger intermediary who will visit the bride’s parents several times to ask for the hand On the last visit that is accompanied by the groom and his close relatives; They carry food, liquor and cigarettes. At the wedding party there is a lot of food, alcohol and music. It is common for indigenous peoples to establish compadrazgo relationships with mestizos for baptism, first community, or marriage. The situation that does not occur in the majority of Indians. The Eternal Commissioner is responsible for matters related to land tenure; His term lasts three years and requires a good image before the people. The local authority determines the execution of works for collective benefit that are carried out due to tequios or fatigue, which is compulsory community work.

Crafts

 

The Amuzgos make clay objects such as pots, comales, pots and jugs; Nets and backpacks, bamboo and palm basketry. In Xochistlahuaca they make machetes with inscriptions from the region. Many women make textile crafts made of waist fabric, which is sold to intermediaries. Almost the whole family participates in the craft learning. Women teach girls how to weave the loom, while boys teach boys the web of nets and networks.

Religion

The Amuzgos still practice the rites of pre-Hispanic origin, dedicated to agriculture or the owners of the canyons of mountains, rivers, streams, caves, etc., for the protection and abundant crops of supernatural beings. These rites and ceremonies are performed by specialists who, in addition to healing, serve as priests and magicians. In these communities the Catholic religion predominates; However, in recent years, the influence of Protestant groups such as Jehovah’s Witnesses, Pentecostals and the Light of the World grew, preaching mainly among the indigenous population. In the municipal capitals there are Catholic churches and the congregations have chapels. Mayordomos are appointed by the people to organize religious festivals, and to care for the saints and the temple.

Infrastructure

The Amuzgo municipalities are communicated by paved roads, dirt roads and sidewalks, which are used when the roads become impassable due to the rains. This region is crossed by the Oaxaca-Pinotepa Nacional highway and the Huajuapan de León-Pinotepa Nacional highway.

They have bilingual primary and primary schools, kindergarten, indigenous pre-school education centers, school shelters, federal secondary school, telesecundaria, high school center incorporated into the Southeast Regional University (Urse), IMSS-Solidaridad clinic, Casa del Pueblo , handicraft market and Conasupo shops. The signals of the commercial radio station in Putla de Guerrero, the one in Tlaxiaco that transmits cultural programs and some transmissions from the city of Oaxaca, are captured.

 

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