Albert Einstein ( Ulm , 14 March as as 1879 – Princeton , 18 as April as 1955 ). German physicist , creator of the theory of relativity and various other physical theories that have led to new representations of space , time , motion , substance , light, and gravitation . In 1905 he formulated the theory of “Brownian motion”, that is, of the motion of small bodies suspended in a liquid under the influence of the impulses given by themolecules . This theory was a convincing demonstration of the reality of molecules and their movements. In that same year, Einstein arrived at the representation of light particles as light quanta or photons. Also in 1905, Einstein published his first work on the special theory of relativity (theory of relativity). [one]
In 1916 , he formulated the ideas of the general theory of relativity. Fascist terror forced Einstein to leave Germany – he established his residence in Princeton ( United States ). In the 1930s and 1940s , Einstein sought to create a unified field theory, revealing the nature not only of gravitation fields, but of other fields as well. [one]
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- 1 Biographical synthesis
- 1 Youth
- 2 Maturity
- 2 Contributions
- 1 Photoelectric effect
- 2 Restricted relativity
- 3 Unit Field Theory
- 3 Einstein and education
- 4 Einstein and literature
- 5 Einstein and philosophy
- 1 Einstein and pacifism
- 6 Works
- 7 Phrases
- 8 Sources
He was born on 14 of March of 1879 in the German city of Ulm, a hundred kilometers to the east of Stuttgart , in a Jewish family. The parents were Hermann Einstein and Pauline Koch . The father worked as a salesman, although he later joined the Hermann electrochemical company. From the beginning, he showed some difficulty in expressing himself, so he appeared to have some delay that would cause him some problems.
Unlike the younger sister, Maya, who was more lively and cheerful, Albert was patient and methodical and did not like to show off. He used to avoid the company of other infants of his age and although as children, they also had their differences from time to time, he only admitted the sister in solitude. He attended primary school in a Catholic school; a difficult period that he would endure thanks to the violin classes that his mother would give him (an instrument that he was passionate about and that he continued playing throughout his life) and the introduction to algebra that Uncle Jacob would discover for him.
Einsten at 14 years old
His uncle, Jacob Einstein, a man with great incentive and ideas, convinced Albert’s father to build a house with a workshop, where they would carry out new projects and technological experiments of the time in order to obtain benefits, but, Because the gadgets and gadgets they tuned and manufactured were products for the future, they had no buyers today, and the business failed.
He grew up motivated between the investigations that were carried out in the workshop and all the devices that were there. In addition, the uncle encouraged the scientific concerns that he had, providing him with science books. As Einstein himself relates in his autobiography, a constant questioning of the claims of religion would arise from reading these popular science books; a free determined thought that was associated with other forms of rejection towards the State and authority. An unusual skepticism at that time, according to Einstein himself.
The passage through the Gymnasium (high school) was not very gratifying: the rigidity and military discipline of the secondary schools of the Bismarck era won him not a few controversies with the teachers: “your mere presence undermines the respect that I the class must , “ said one of them once. Another told him that “it would never amount to anything . “
The school did not motivate him, and although he was excellent in mathematics and physics, he was not interested in other subjects. At age 15, without tutor or guide, he undertook the study of infinitesimal calculus. The clearly unfounded idea that he was a bad student comes from the early biographers who wrote about Einstein, who confused the Swiss school grading system with the German one (a six in Switzerland was the best grade).
In 1894 the Hermann company suffered major financial difficulties and the Einsteins moved from Munich to Pavia in Italy near Milan . Albert remained in Munich to finish his courses before joining his family in Pavia, but the separation was short-lived: before obtaining his bachelor’s degree he decided to leave the Gymnasium.
Then, the Einstein family tried to enroll Albert in the Zurich Polytechnic Institute (Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule) but, not having a bachelor’s degree, he had to sit for an entrance test which he failed due to a poor qualification in a subject of letters. This meant that he was initially rejected, but the director of the center, impressed by his results in science, advised him to continue his high school studies and obtain the degree that would give him direct access to the Polytechnic.
His family sent him to Aarau to finish his secondary studies and Einstein obtained the German bachelor’s degree in 1896 , at the age of 16. That same year, he renounced his German citizenship and began the procedures to become a Swiss citizen. Soon after, the young Einstein entered the Zurich Polytechnic Institute, enrolling in the School of Mathematical and Scientific Orientation, with the idea of studying physics.
Over the years in politically vibrant Zurich, he discovered the work of various philosophers: Marx, Engels, Hume, Kant, Ernst Mach, and Spinoza. He also made contact with the socialist movement through Friedich Adler and with a certain nonconformist and revolutionary thought in which his friend Michele Besso had a lot to do with. In 1898 he met Mileva Maric , a Serbian classmate, also a friend of Nikola Tesla , feminist and radical, with whom he fell in love.
In 1900 Albert and Mileva graduated from the Zürich Polytechnic and in 1901 obtained Swiss citizenship. During this period he discussed his scientific ideas with a group of close friends, including Mileva, with whom he had a daughter in January 1902 , named Liserl. On January 6, 1903 the couple married.
He graduated in 1900 , obtaining the diploma of Professor of Mathematics and Physics , but could not find a job at the University, so he worked as a tutor in Winterthur, Schaffhausen and Bern. The classmate’s father, Marcel Grossmann , helped him find steady employment at the Confederal Intellectual Property Office in Bern, a patent office, where he worked from 1902 to 1909 . The personality that poetry also caused him problems with the director of the Office, who taught him to “express himself correctly”.
At this time, Einstein lovingly referred to his wife Mileva as “a person who is my equal and as strong and independent as I am.” Abram Joffe, in Einstein’s biography, argues that during this period he was aided in investigations by Mileva. This is contradicted by other biographers such as Ronald W. Clark, who claims that Einstein and Mileva were in a distant relationship that gave him the solitude necessary to concentrate on his work.
In May of 1904 , Einstein and Mileva had a son named Hans and later that year got a permanent job at the Patent Office. Shortly thereafter, he completed his doctorate by presenting a thesis entitled A New Determination of Molecular Dimensions, consisting of a 17-page paper that emerged from a conversation with Michele Besso , over a cup of tea; As Einstein sweetened his, he asked Besso, “Do you think calculating the dimensions of the sugar molecules could be a good PhD thesis?”
In 1905 he wrote several fundamental works on small and large-scale physics . In the first of them he explained Brownian motion, in the second the photoelectric effect and the remaining two developed special relativity and mass-energy equivalence. The first he earned his doctorate from the University of Zurich in 1906 , and his work on the photoelectric effect, make him worthy of the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1921 for his work on Brownian motion and its interpretation of the effect photoelectric. These articles were submitted to the Annalen der Physik magazine and are generally known as the articles of theAnnus Mirabilis (extraordinary year).
Albert Einstein in 1921
In 1908 he was hired at the University of Bern, Switzerland, as a professor and lecturer (Privatdozent). Einstein and Mileva had a new son, Eduard, born on July 28 , 1910 . Soon after, the family moved to Prague , where Einstein obtained the position of professor of theoretical physics, the equivalent of Professor, at the German University of Prague. At this time he worked closely with Marcel Grossmann and Otto Stern . He also began to call the fourth dimension mathematical time.
In 1913 , just before World War I, he was elected to the Prussian Academy of Sciences. He established his residence in Berlin, where he remained for seventeen years. Emperor William invited him to head the Physics section of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Physics.
The 14 of February of 1919 she divorced Mileva and some months later, the 2 of June of 1919 he married a cousin, Elsa Loewenthal, whose maiden name was Einstein: Loewenthal was the surname of her first husband, Max Loewenthal. Elsa was three years older than him and had been caring for him after suffering a severe state of exhaustion. Einstein and Elsa had no children. The fate of Albert and Mileva’s daughter, Lieserl, born before their parents married or found work, is unknown. Of his two children, the first, Hans Albert, moved to California, where he became a university professor, although with little interaction with his father; the second, Eduard, suffered from schizophrenia and was admitted to an institution for the treatment of mental illness.
In the 1920s , in Berlin , Einstein’s fame sparked heated discussions. Editorials attacking his theory could be read in conservative newspapers. Show-conferences were held trying to argue how crazy the special theory of relativity was. He was even attacked, in a veiled way, not overtly, as a Jew. In the rest of the world, the Theory of relativity was passionately debated in popular conferences and texts.
Before the rise of Nazism, (Adolf Hitler came to power in January 1933 ), so he decided to leave Germany in December 1932 and go to the United States , where he taught at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, adding to his Swiss nationality the American in 1940 .
In Germany, expressions of hatred of Jews reached very high levels. Several physicists of Nazi ideology, some as notable as the Nobel Laureates in Physics Johannes Stark and Philipp Lenard , tried to discredit their theories. Other physicists who taught the Theory of Relativity, such as Werner Heisenberg , were vetoed in their attempts to access teaching positions.
Einstein, in 1939, decides to exert his influence by participating in political issues that affect the world. He writes the famous letter to Roosevelt, to promote the Atomic Project and prevent the “enemies of humanity” from doing it earlier: “since, given the Nazis’ mentality, they would have consummated the destruction and slavery of the rest of the world.” During his last years, Einstein worked to integrate the four Fundamental Forces into the same theory, a task still unfinished.
During 1905 , he published five works in the Annalen der Physik : the first one earned him a doctorate from the University of Zurich , and the remaining four ended up imposing a radical change in the image that science offers of the universe. Of these, the first provided a theoretical explanation, in statistical terms, of Brownian motion , and the second gave an interpretation of the photoelectric effect based on the hypothesis that light is composed of how many individuals, later called photons; the remaining two works laid the foundations of the restricted theory of relativity , establishing the equivalence between the energy Eof a certain amount of matter and its mass m , in terms of the famous equation E = mc² , where c is the speed of light, which is assumed to be constant.
On the scientific level, between 1914 and 1916 , his activity focused on the improvement of the general theory of relativity , based on the postulate that gravity is not a force but a field created by the presence of a mass in the space-time continuum. The confirmation of his forecasts came in 1919 , when the solar eclipse of May 29 was photographed ; The Times introduced him as the new Newton and his international fame grew, forcing him to multiply his outreach conferences around the world and popularizing his image as a third-class rail traveler, with a violin case under his arm.
For the next decade, Einstein concentrated his efforts on finding a mathematical relationship between electromagnetism and gravitational attraction , bent on advancing towards what, for him, should be the ultimate goal of physics: discovering the common laws that, supposedly, had to govern the behavior of all objects in the universe, from subatomic particles to stellar bodies. Such research, which occupied the rest of his life, was unsuccessful and ended up bringing him the strange respect of the rest of the scientific community.
In 1921 he received the Nobel Prize in Physics for his theory on the photoelectric effect and his numerous contributions to theoretical physics, and not for the Theory of Relativity , since the scientist who was entrusted with the task of evaluating it did not understand it, and they were afraid of running the risk of being proved wrong later. At that time it was still considered somewhat controversial by many scientists.
In 1932 he left the Prussian Academy and bravely faced Hitler . Once the Nazi persecution against the Jews began, he went to America and taught at the Institute for Higher Studies in Princeton ( New Jersey ).
In 1945 he retired to private life, despite which he continued his scientific activity intensely.
In its first formulation (theory of restricted relativity), it extended the Galilean-Newtonian principle of relativity to optical and electromagnetic phenomena, previously limited only to the field of Mechanics , and affirmed the validity of the latter’s laws regarding both a system and Galilean of reference K, as in relation to another of reference K ‘in rectilinear and uniform movement with respect to K.
According to Einstein’s theories, the law of the propagation of light in a vacuum must have, like any other general law of nature, the same expression already referred to, for example, to a railway sentry box or to a train carriage in rectilinear motion and uniform in relation to it; In other words, the speed of light does not match that of reference systems that move in a straight line and uniformly with respect to the movement of the same light. In reality, the Michelson-Morley experiment , repeated a thousand times and verified since 1881 , had shown the difference between the speed of light and that of Earth .
In 1905 Albert Einstein proposed a mathematical description of this phenomenon that seemed to work correctly and in which the emission of electrons was produced by the absorption of quanta of light that would later be called photons.
In an article entitled A Heuristic View on Light Production and Transformation, he showed how the idea of discrete light particles could explain the photoelectric effect and the presence of a characteristic frequency for each material below which no production occurred. effect.
Einstein’s work predicted that the energy with which electrons escaped from the material increased linearly with the frequency of the incident light. Surprisingly this aspect had not been observed in previous experiences on the photoelectric effect. The experimental demonstration of this aspect was carried out in 1915 by the American physicist Robert Andrews Millikan .
Restricted relativity offers the reason for this fact, previously inexplicable. In turn, the invariance of the speed of light leads to the introduction, in Physics , of the Lorentz transformations , according to which the temporal distance between two events and that which separates two points of a rigid body are a function of the movement of the reference system, and therefore are different for K and K ‘ . This frees us, in the formulation of optical and electromagnetic laws, from the relationship with the hypothetical “absolute” fixed system, metaphysical puzzle of classical physics, since such laws, as they appear formulated in restricted relativity, are valid for K e equally forK ‘ , the same as those of Mechanics .
Unit Field Theory
During the last years of his existence, Einstein laid the foundations of a third theory, that of the ” unit field “, which unifies in a single system both the equations of the electromagnetic field and those of the field of gravitation.
In the year 1950 , he exhibited his unified field theory in an article entitled On the generalized theory of gravitation (On the Generalized Theory of Gravitation) in the famous journal Scientific American .
Although Albert Einstein was world famous for his work in theoretical physics, he gradually isolated himself in his research, and his attempts were unsuccessful.
Pursuing the unification of the fundamental forces, Albert ignored some important developments in physics, being remarkably visible on the subject of strong nuclear and weak nuclear forces, which were not well understood until fifteen years after Einstein’s death (near from 1970 ) through numerous experiments in high energy physics. The attempts put forward by String Theory, or M-Theory , show that its impetus still remains to succeed in demonstrating the grand theory of the unification of the laws of physics.
The further development of this theory, left by the sage as an inheritance, will surely allow obtaining – as Infeld , Einstein’s disciple observes – not only the equations of both fields, but also those corresponding to the theory of quanta.
Einstein and education
Although in his youth he aspired to be a teacher of physics and mathematics, when he succeeded he did not show much enthusiasm for the classrooms, he preferred to work with few students and if possible without a certain schedule. He was, therefore, an unequal teacher, more appreciated in dealing directly with students than in large classes, but he was also not given the direction of any doctoral thesis, as would be expected in those who preferred to work with small groups.
In a letter to a young woman, complaining about the treatment she received from her teachers, Einstein reminds her of having received similar treatment:
“They hated me for my independence and excluded me when they wanted helpers.”
This corroborates his maladjustment to formal education, at least that practiced in Prussian schools during childhood and youth. And later he writes:
“On the other hand, I have come to Princeton only to investigate, not to teach. There is too much formal education, especially in North American centers.”
. However, he held in high esteem those who felt they had a vocation for teaching:
“Teaching has always been the most important means of transmitting the treasure of tradition from one generation to the next … The continuity and health of humanity depends, therefore, to an even greater degree than before, on the institutions of teaching”.
Maxim that always raised as a remedy for the ills and disappointments of which he was a victim or witness throughout his life.
He valued the school not only as a center to acquire knowledge , he thought that:
“Valuable qualities and aptitudes for the common good should be cultivated in young individuals.”
He put personal and civic training before mere learning, but the method to influence personality development should not, in his opinion, be verbal transmission.
“Great personalities are not formed by what is heard and said, but by work and activity … by carrying out specific tasks”, tasks to be done freely, without fear or coercion to promote “that divine curiosity that every child owns, but so often weakens prematurely. ”
On the scientific training of youth, he thought:
«” A young person’s mind should not be crowded with data, names and formulas: all things that can be found in books, without having to follow any university course. The years of study should be used only to teach young people to think, to give them training that no manual can replace. It is a true miracle that modern pedagogy has not completely stifled the holy curiosity of search. I believe that it could even make the voracity of a healthy wild beast disappear, by forcing it , under the threat of the whip, to eat constantly even if he was not hungry and, above all, choosing appropriately the food that would force him to swallow “» .
Einstein and literature
Habicht, Solovine and Einstein, grouped as “Olympia Academy” in Bern
One of the tasks that Habicht, Solovine, and Einstein set for themselves in their youth, grouping themselves as “Olympia Academy” in Bern, was to read and make literary comments. His favorite readings were the classics, including Sophocles, Racine and Cervantes. In a writing dated 1952, Einstein writes about classical literature:
A person who reads only newspapers and, at best, books by contemporary authors, says that I am like a short-sighted person who makes fun of glasses. He depends entirely on the prejudices and fashions of his time, since he never sees or hears otherwise. And what a person thinks on his own, without the stimulation of the thoughts and experiences of others, is, even at best, quite mean and monotonous.
There are only a few enlightened people with a lucid mind and good style in every century. What is left of his work is one of humanity’s most precious treasures. We owe it to a few ancient writers that the people of the Middle Ages gradually freed themselves from the superstitions and ignorance that had shadowed life for more than five centuries. There is nothing better to overcome the modernist conceit.
From contemporary literature, Einstein was seduced by the world views of HG Wells and Bernard Shaw. In a conference on The Jewish Community delivered at the Savoy Hotel in London in 1934 , attended by those writers, addressing Shaw, who he describes as a doctor of the soul for the moral principles contained in his works, he says: ‘
“” You, Mr. Shaw, have earned the admiration and affection of men by taking an impossible path for many to follow. You have not only preached morality to humanity, you have mocked so many things that seemed untouchable. only an artist can do. Thanks to this he has managed to rid the existence of a little of his heaviness. “»
Einstein himself was both a literary motif for some writers. During his stay as a teacher in Prague he met the writer Max Brod , friend, biographer and editor of Franz Kafka , who in his novel The Redemption of Tycho Brahe ( 1916 ), the character who represents Kepler is inspired by Albert Einstein. Portraits of him were written by other authors, including the Spanish Juan Ramón Jiménez , Ramiro de Maeztu , Pedro Salinas , Ortega y Gasset , Jorge Guillén , Ramón Pérez de Ayala , Salvador de Madariaga , and others.
In the black comedy The Physicists , written by Friedrich Dürrenmatt in 1962 , Einstein shares the limelight with Newton, names adopted by patients incarcerated in a madhouse, in which the protagonist of the play, a nuclear physicist, Möbius, takes refuge fleeing from his own horrors. , discoverer of the formula for the manufacture of the atomic bomb.
Just as Albert Einstein was a select reader and literary motif, his work, together with Planck’s and those who made possible the relativistic and quantum revolutions of the 20th century, is considered by some students of cultural movements to be remarkably influential in literature and plastic arts, which in the first third of that century opened up to forms as revolutionary as those produced in physics.
In authors such as William Carlos Williams , Archibald MacLeish , Virginia Woolf , Vladimir Nabokov , Lawrence Durrell , William Faulkner and James Joyce , to cite the most outstanding and contemporary of Einstein, they find a language inspired by the new scientific conceptions of the world. Alan J. Friedman and Carol C. Donley deal with these influences, particularly their impact on literature, in Einstein as Myth and Muse ( 1985 ). Gerald Holton in Einstein, history and other passions ( Madrid ,1998 ) advocates greater caution when adjudicating such influences: “The tantalizing task of finding the detailed culmination of the hidden causal ties linking capital works and the spirit of the age remains for future researchers.”
Einstein and philosophy
Einstein considered his scientific activity to be part of the philosophical contributions made throughout history to understand the mysteries of nature. In the book written together with his assistant Leopold Infeld La Física, adventure of thought ( Buenos Aires , 1939 ), about the reciprocity between physics and philosophy, in the section “The philosophical background”, they write:
“” The results of scientific research often determine profound changes in the philosophical conception of problems whose breadth escapes the restricted domain of science. What is the object of science? What requirements must a theory that claims to describe nature meet? “These questions, even when they go beyond the limits of physics, are closely related to it, since they have their origin in science. Philosophical generalizations must be based on scientific conclusions. But, established and widely accepted, they in turn influence in the further development of scientific thought, indicating one of the multiple paths to follow: A successful rebellion against the accepted generally results in unexpected progress that brings with it new philosophical conceptions.These observations will seem vague and pointless as long as they are not illustrated by examples from the history of physics. “»
However, Einstein’s attitude to knowledge was peculiar like everything in his life, that is, not without contradictions. Although he was influenced early on in his career by positivist philosophers like Ernst Mach and the mathematician Poincaré, in his mature years he departed from positivism, even going so far as to qualify Mach as “a bad philosopher”, increasingly convinced that the formulation of scientific theories did not have to be associated with the experience of observation. From his meeting with Einstein, Karl Popper comes to this conclusion: “It is our inventiveness, our imagination, our intellect, and especially the use of our critical faculties to discuss and compare our theories that makes it possible for our knowledge to develop.”What Einstein used to summarize in a few words: “There is no objective here, only the opportunity to indulge in the pleasant task of thinking.” This is how Popper relates Einstein’s personal impression on him: “” It is difficult to transmit the impression that Einstein’s personality made on me and my wife. You just had to trust him, you had to give yourself unconditionally to his kindness, to his kindness , to his wisdom, to his sincerity and to an almost childish simplicity. It speaks for our world and for America that a man so alien to the world could not only survive in it, but be appreciated and respected. “»
In relation to his way of working and behaving, illustrative are the conversations with Einstein’s son Hans Albert and a large representation of Einstein’s collaborators throughout his life, broadcast by the BBC in 1966 , published by GJ Whitrow in Einstein: the man and his work ( Mexico , 1961 ). These are some ideas taken from Banesh Hoffmann’s answers regarding the time when he and Leopold Infeld worked under Einstein’s direction from 1937 , after daring to present himself to the distinguished scientist for advice on some research topic:“” I was fortunate to work with Einstein. Anyone would have thought of it as a wonderful opportunity to see how his mind worked and learn to become a great scientist himself. Unfortunately, these revelations do not occur. Genius cannot be reduced to a series of simple rules for everyone to follow.
When we reached a dead end … we all paused and then Einstein stood up quietly and said, in his curious English: “I will a little think”. Saying this, he would walk up and down or in circles, playing with a lock of his long white hair, turning it with his index finger. In those highly dramatic moments, Infeld and I were completely silent, not daring to move or make the slightest sound, so as not to interrupt the course of his thought. There was a dreamy look on his face, distant and yet internalized. It gave no appearance of intense concentration. Another minute passed, and suddenly Einstein was visibly relaxing and his face lit up with a smile … he seemed to come back to reality and realize our presence. So he gave us the solution to the problem and almost always the solution worked. “»
Einstein and pacifism
The rejection of the military, the parades were ridiculous and grotesque to him, eventually renouncing German nationality at the age of 17 with the purpose of not doing military service, and the aversion to the arms race were a constant in life of Einstein manifests in his writings and in his adherence to societies in favor of peace. His attitude was radicalized increasingly calling the objection of conscienceof the peoples to frontally oppose the governments that opted for war as a way to “achieve peace”. However, following the persecution and extermination of the Jewish people by German Nazism, their message was no longer so clearly opposed to non-participation in the war. He himself, in order to raise funds for the Allied cause in World War II, rewritten the 1905 article on relativity by hand in 1939 for auction. $ 6 million was paid for it.
The fatal outcome of the war, with the launching of two atomic bombs, made him reveal himself radically again against the production of weapons, insisting again and again that the solution was not in international treaties that at critical moments no one complies with. Nor in world-class organizations, from which he ended up resigning, because they never get to the bottom of the problems.
Albert Einstein’s last pacifist action was his acceptance to lead the so – called Einstein-Russell Manifesto in 1955. In the presentation speech of the same in London, Russell tells how the first steps were agreed between him and Einstein. When Einstein’s letter was received subscribing to the manuscript he had died the week before. Their appeal for world peace is summarized in the final paragraph of the manifesto: “In view of the fact that in any future world war nuclear weapons will undoubtedly be used, and that such weapons threaten the continuity of humanity’s existence We urge the governments of the world to recognize, and publicly demonstrate, that their purposes cannot be achieved through world war, and we urge them, accordingly, to find peaceful means to resolve all motives for dispute among themselves. ”
Joseph Rotblat , who was part of the Manhattan project team for the manufacture in the United States of the first atomic bomb, although he resigned before the completion of the manufacture, accused of being a Russian spy, and the only one still alive of the signatories of the manifesto, says in The World ( April 14 , 2005) how the manifesto was created from Great Britain at the initiative of Russell and the collaboration of Rotblat. They wanted to have the most prestigious scientists; 11 were the signatories, but the most recognized worldwide was, without a doubt, Einstein. About him, Rotblat writes: “He was a scientist, but also a realist, aware of what was happening in the world. It was almost the opposite of what people think about scientists: absent, immersed in their work and naive. He was totally conscious and trying to do something. I admire him not only as a great man of science, but also as a great human being. I believe that if he were alive, he would continue working on his theories, but also working for peace. ”
The Einstein-Russell Manifesto led to the Pugwash conferences on science and world affairs recognized in 1995 with the Nobel Peace Prize .