Plants that live in water are called hydrophytes. Hydrophytic plants grow by having flexible and slender stems. The roots possessed by hydrophytic plants are small, and the leaves are similar to ribbons, so that these plants are able to survive, when struck by a continuous stream of water.
Some hydrophytic plants float freely and absorb nutrients that can dissolve in water. Hydrophytes whose roots are in the subgrade of the waters have stems with small air spaces inside them. The air space, causing plants to remain upright or float on the surface of the water to get sunlight.
The air-filled stem also functions to help channel oxygen to the roots. Water hyacinth and lotus are examples of hydrophytic plants.
Plants that live in a desert or desert
Deserts are areas or regions that have little water. Because it has a little water, plants that live in the desert, will try to save water by using various methods. The way that these plants do, some have fine roots so they can take water quickly during the rainy season, some store water in their leaves or stems, and some have leaves with very narrow surfaces, even resembling thorns to minimize evaporation . Cactus, is a plant that can live in a desert.
Plants that live in snowy areas
Snowy area is an area where most of the surface is covered with a layer of ice. The temperature in the snowy area is very cold because the sun’s rays in the area are very weak. Plants that live in snowy areas hibernate in order to survive by sleeping for months.
In summer, when the snowy area is exposed to sunlight for 24 hours, plants photosynthesize most of the day. Photosynthesis results are collected for energy supply in winter. Then, when the amount of light and temperature decreases, plants begin to fall asleep, and mosses are one of the plants that can live in snowy areas.
Plants that live in salt water
Mangroves are plants that can live in salt water. Mangrove roots filter out most of the salt from the absorbed water. Other excess salt is removed to the surface of the leaves and stems.
Mangrove roots grow in oxygen-poor mud, so mangroves have special roots that emerge at the surface of the water at low tide. This root has the ability to absorb air and channel it to the roots that are in the mud. This particular root is called a breath root or pneumatophora.
Adjustment of plants to protect themselves
Plants also have the ability to protect themselves from enemies. How to protect yourself in plants, which are as follows:
1. Produces poison
Plants develop many powerful poisons that are used to repel animals and insects. Some of them contain cyanide poison in their leaves which can blind animals when eating it. Example: jatropha, amethyst, and hemlock.
2. Fur that causes itching
Herbs and netels have feathers which can cause itching when touched. Even net plants have very sharp feathers that can sting so that most animals stay away.
3. Imitate the state of the surrounding environment
Stone plants or lithops are found in many African deserts. This plant has two rounded leaves and looks like a stone. These plant leaves protect themselves by resembling the shape of a stone so it is not eaten by animals.
4. Removing the sap
Plant sap quickly attaches to animal plants and makes it difficult for animals to move, so it can help plants from animal attacks. Cashew sap, can cause itching – itching and minor injuries. Besides cashew, there are still other plants that protect themselves with sap, namely Nagka, Sapodilla, frangipani flowers, and rubber.
5. Has sharp spines
Sharp thorns on plants to protect themselves from attacks by animals that will eat them, for example on rose plants, snake fruit, invoices, bougenvil, and lime.