Many have doubts whether Adam and Eve really existed
The first men of whom Genesis speaks may well have been rudimentary, as shown by the evidence from prehistory fossils. Adam’s religious ideas may have been pure, but in the form of concrete intuitions like those of primitive peoples and children; it was not about high theological knowledge.
Adam (= Adam, man) and Eve (= Mother of the living) represent the human being created by God. They are as real as the human race . God presented himself to man in his origins, to real man and not to a fictional being. They did exist; they were the first human beings to receive an immortal soul from God.
Adam and Eve are not proper names
On the other hand, Adam and Eve are not proper names like John, Peter and Mary are. So, they don’t necessarily represent just the first couple of humans, but the first humans. They are names of Hebrew origin that mean only “man” and “woman”. For this reason, the Church leaves it to the study of scientists to show how human beings arose, brought by God; whether from just one couple (monogenism) or several couples from the same trunk (polygenism). What the Church does not accept is that humanity has emerged, at the same time, from several trunks, in different places.
So what does the Bible want to teach us?
Genesis, in its first three chapters, uses figurative language to reveal religious, non-scientific or historical truths. In summary, the Bible wants to teach us just the following:
1) God created the human being, male and female, and may have used the evolution of pre-existing matter until it reached the degree of complexity of the human body;
2) The Lord gave the first parents special spiritual graces: “original justice” (harmony with you, with women, with nature and with God), and “state of holiness” (deep communion with God, participation in divine life), preternatural gifts (not suffering, dying, infused science, etc.).
3) The Creator indicated to the first parents a model of life represented by the prohibition on eating the fruit of the tree of the science of good and evil. This meant that man should not be “the arbiter of good and evil”, and since he was elevated to special fellowship with God, he should behave not simply according to his common sense or rational intuitions, but according to the norms correspondents of their dignity as children of God;
4) Man, for pride and disobedience, said ‘no’ to this model of life and to the Creator’s invitation, thus losing the “state of holiness” and “original justice”. In this way, suffering and death entered the world because of original sin; this led St. Paul to say that “the wages of sin is death” (Rom 6, 23).
There is no need to exaggerate the perfection of the primitive state of humanity because of preternatural gifts, and “original justice”. It was a beautiful state, but from a religious and moral point of view only, not in terms of civilization or culture.