9 Suitable Approaches for Learning Science in Elementary Schools

An Approach Appropriate for Learning Science in Elementary Schools _ Science education in elementary schools aims to make students master knowledge, facts, concepts, principles, the discovery process, and have a scientific attitude, which will be beneficial for students in learning about themselves and the natural world around them. Science education emphasizes giving direct experience to find out and do so that they are able to explore and understand the natural surroundings scientifically.

9 Suitable Approaches for Learning Science in Elementary Schools

Science philosophy as a way to find out based on observation. Thus, knowledge in science is the result of observations which are concluded based on the results of observations. Truth must be proven empirically based on observation or experiment. The development of science learning that is interesting, fun, appropriate, appropriate to the context, and supported by the availability of time, expertise, facilities and infrastructure is an activity that is not easy to implement.

A teacher is required to have sufficient ability and creativity so that learning can be carried out effectively and efficiently. One aspect of the ability that must be owned by a teacher is about understanding and mastery of the learning approach.

You certainly have sufficient experience in implementing the science learning process in elementary school. How many different approaches do you use? How did you define this approach? What is the reason for choosing this approach? One of the roles of the approach in learning is to increase the success of the learning carried out.

Approaches that can be used in science learning include environmental, science-environmental-technology-community, conceptual, factual, values, problem solving, discovery, inquiry, process skills, computer, historical, and deductive/inductive approaches. Here are some approaches that can be used in learning science.

9 Suitable Approaches for Learning Science in Elementary Schools

1. Environmental Approach
The environmental approach is teaching science with the perspective that developing students’ habits of using and treating the environment wisely by understanding the political, economic, socio-cultural, ecological factors that affect humans in and treat the environment is built through students’ understanding of the environment itself.

In this approach, learning is developed by using the environment as a learning resource, to develop caring and loving attitudes and behaviors for the environment, and to develop environmental research skills.

2. Science-Environmental-Technology-Society Approach
Science formulates explanations for observing the environment, Technology which is the application of knowledge, formulates solutions to problems related to human adaptation to the environment. Society is a human environment where natural science activities, scientific activities, and technological activities take place.

Developments developed through IPA contribute to the development of new technologies. The new technology will influence scientific activities and determine the problems studied and the methods used to solve problems. The knowledge produced by natural sciences and the processes used by scientists influence human views on life, human ways of thinking, and the environment in general.

The science-environmental-technology-society approach is that perspective
students learn, construct knowledge, through personal interaction between experience and
knowledge schemata. Acquisition of knowledge is carried out by schemata of students who are
appropriate and beneficial to them. In science education, students are able to gain
physical experience and gain experience regarding concepts and models in

In general, the purpose of using this approach is for students to have an understanding of aspects of science, technology, environments, and society that are used for cognitive development, using scientific and technological understanding to be applied in the natural environment and social (community) environment of students.

In this approach, learning is centered on students by paying attention to student diversity. The basic steps that can be applied are (1) Brainstorming about a topic/topic, (2) defining certain questions/phenomena, (3) curapen can be about information sources, (4) using sources to obtain information, (5) analyzing, synthesizing , evaluate, and create something, and (6) take concrete action (Lutz, 1996 in Herawati Susilo, 1998).

3. the factual approach
according to Funk. et al. (1979), the factual approach is a way of describing science by preparing the findings of science to students where at the end of an instructional students will get information about important things about science.

The most efficient methods for following up on this approach are reading, providing expert opinions from books, demonstrations, drills, and giving tests. Sometimes this approach is attractive to students, but does not reflect a picture of the nature of science itself. The facts conveyed represent natural science results or products and minimize the description of the importance of natural science processes in producing these natural science products.

Usually students do not remember facts for a long time. If you only give lessons about facts, students will get the impression that science is just a catalog of a collection of information. Students do not get a presentation about the overall picture of the nature of science which is actually more interesting and fun.

4. Conceptual Approach
According to Funk. et al. (1979), if presenting facts gives a rather narrow view of science and the learning outcomes cannot be remembered for too long, maybe teaching concepts is expected to give better results. Concept is an opinion which is a series of facts.

In order to understand a concept, learning requires concrete objects, exploration, obtaining facts, and manipulating or processing opinions mentally. The conceptual approach allows students to organize facts into a model or explanation of the nature of the universe. This approach emphasizes the delivery of
natural science products or results and does not teach the process of how these products are produced.

Esler and Esler (1984) state that in general, a teacher will first think about what science material will be taught before he decides how to teach it. How to organize a student’s concept of observing and storing his knowledge of many conceptual levels.

Students will identify an object, consider it based on evidence, recognize, conceptualize (eg based on the process or object characteristics). Simple concepts that are repeatedly observed are then accepted as facts. Once students manipulate and generalize based on observations and facts, more complicated conceptualizations will occur to them.

A more complex scientific generalization is called a conceptual schema. The concept of IPA itself is still quite general in nature, consisting of several sub-concepts. Sub-concept is the best suitable conceptual level for building student learning experiences, which can be used to explain many observations and facts, but presents a conceptualization that is narrow enough to be tested.

Higher level concepts and universally accepted conceptual schemes are known as IPA principles or laws. In general, experts develop curriculum based on big ideas, in the form of conceptual schemes, concepts, sub-concepts. This is because science knowledge is developing rapidly. No student is expected to learn all the science facts.

5. Problem Solving Approach
Herawati Susilo (1998) cites the opinion of Meyer (1987) that the problem-solving approach (farce field approach) is an important approach. Every problem has a positive force or driving force that tends towards positive change to improve a condition or situation. But on the other hand there is also a negative or inhibiting power of thought in the form of solving the problem.

Therefore, in solving the problem, it is necessary to identify positive driving forces that can be used and identify inhibiting forces to minimize their influence. According to Unesco’s book (1986), in the use of a problem-solving approach, various methods can be applied that depart from a problem.

Teachers can formulate and demonstrate solving a problem, then ask
students to apply the principles of problem solving to solve similar problems.

Another alternative is that the teacher can only guide students to formulate and solve the problems posed to them. A teacher can also combine the two ways that have been mentioned. Problems can be in the form of convergent problems, namely problems with having one way of solving, or diverging problems, namely problems with having several possible ways of solving.

Problem solving skills are basic skills that are developed through a series of exercises. This problem solving exercise also trains students to be responsible, have high abilities, be responsive to various conditions and situations they face, and have creativity. One way to train students is to get students to act actively, collect data, respond to questions, and organize the information they get.

6. Values ​​Approach The
value approach is a way of teaching science by using the view of a value, for example related to morals/ethics, which are universal, values ​​related to beliefs/religion, or values ​​related to the politics, social, culture of a country or region.

At the end of the instructional students are expected to be able to understand and apply behavior regarding values ​​concerning harmony, harmony, and balance of the environment and the universe: the ideal or ideal perfection that is related to life and life: good and bad for life and nature: advantages/benefits and losses for humans, the environment and the universe: negative and positive for humans physically and spiritually as well as socially and spiritually: and so on.

This approach emphasizes the delivery of science products or results and an explanation of the science process and the expected behavior related to these products and processes, but does not teach directly about the process of how these products are produced.

7. inquiry approach
Inquiry is characterized by a search for answers through a series of intellectual activities. In general, the activities carried out are planning, discussing, making, analyzing hypotheses, interpreting the results to get general concepts that are learned (Herawati Susilo, 1998).

Thus, a theory or understanding is prepared to be tested through rational analysis of calls so as to obtain a discovery or, by experiment. This approach is intended to develop curiosity, imagination, thinking skills, attitudes and process skills. Students need to be motivated to find new possibilities or ways of dealing with problems that must be solved.

Esler and Esler (1984) describe that learning can be categorized as using an inquiry approach when students need to dig deeper into the information conveyed by the teacher to gain new understanding and problem solving is intended to find answers or generate original ones for students.

The reason for using the inquiry approach is to arouse students’ curiosity, involve students in activities that require high levels of cognitive skills, provide concrete experiences for students, help students develop process skills (important skills in carrying out science activities.

Not all teachers who use the inquiry approach can be successful in carrying out learning, therefore this approach is not really generally accepted, but actually failure can be avoided if you pay attention to the following: (1) the teacher must really understand the material, (2) ) the teacher can accept the teacher’s role as an indirect and integrated leader, (3) the teacher must master new and difficult skills (the teacher must learn to make good questions and selectively reinforce student answers), (4) the teacher must understand and overcome problems students who do not know what to do in a new and unfamiliar environment of inquiry.

Furthermore, it is stated that there are three categories in the inquiry approach, namely, rational discovery and experimental. In the rational category inquiry approach, the teacher directs students to create a generation using rational. In general, the teacher asks and gives reinforcement to the answers given by students until the desired generation is achieved.

Related to the material covered in textbooks after students can solve problems and understand concepts and sub-concepts, science content is taught to students. Next, the teacher divides textbooks and assigns related reading assignments. The procedure presents learning related to process and content using a textbook.

8. Process skills approach
According to Funk et al. (1979), the process skills approach is a way of teaching science by teaching sharing process skills commonly used by scientists in obtaining or formulating science results.

This approach engages students more with concrete material and scientific work. Process skills that are commonly taught are observing, conveying observations, and concluding and conducting experiments/research. The process skills approach is discussed in a separate model.

9. Historical approach
The historical approach is a way of teaching science by presenting various discoveries produced by scientists/experts in science and the development of these findings is related to science itself. The common method used for this approach is to read a textbook or explain.

Students are invited to read or listen to information on science findings, not to carry out an activity. As with the factual approach and the conceptual approach, this approach places more emphasis on delivering science products or results, explains a little about the process of obtaining these findings, but does not involve students much in the concrete processes they go through.


by Abdullah Sam
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