5 Learning Theories According to Experts

Learning Theories According to Experts _ In the world of education, especially in Indonesia, it is often guided by the learning theory put forward by education experts in compiling a study or in conducting learning research, this aims as a reference in carrying out an action or as a theory that forms the basis for developing a learning patterns.

At least there are several experts in learning who are often referred to as opinions or theories that have been raised in education in Indonesia. following Learning Theories According to Experts

Learning Theories According to Experts

  1. Bruner’s Learning Theory
    Bruner’s theory, hereinafter referred to as discovery learning (inquiry), is a teaching model that emphasizes the importance of understanding the material structure (key ideas) of a science being studied, the need for active learning as the basis for actual understanding, and the value of thinking inductively in learning (learning). what actually happened through personal discovery). According to Bruner, learning will be more meaningful for students if they focus their attention on understanding the structure of the material being studied. In order to acquire the information structure, students must be active where they must identify the key principles themselves rather than simply receiving explanations from the teacher. Therefore the teacher must raise problems that encourage students to carry out discovery activities. In learning by discovery,

    There are four main things related to Bruner’s learning theory (Hosnan, 2014). First, the individual only learns and develops his mind when he uses his mind. Second, by carrying out cognitive processes in the discovery process, students will get sensations and intellectual satisfaction which is an intrinsic reward. Third, the only way that someone can have the techniques of invention is that he has the opportunity to make discoveries. Fourth, by making discoveries it will strengthen memory retention. The four things above are in accordance with the cognitive processes needed in learning using the scientific method.

  2. Piaget’s learning theory
    Piaget’s theory (Hosnan, 2014) states that learning is related to the formation of schemata (plural schemata). Scheme is the potential to act in a certain way (Hergenhahn & Olson, 2008:314). In Piaget’s theory (Santrock, 2014: 43), behavioral schemes (physical activity) characterize infants, and mental schemes (cognitive activities) develop in childhood. Schemes will always change along with a person’s cognitive development. Hosnan (2013) suggests that the process that causes schemata changes is called adaptation. Piaget offers two concepts to explain how children adapt, namely assimilation and accommodation. According to Hergenhahn & Olson (2008: 314), the process of responding to the environment according to one’s cognitive structure is called assimilation, namely the type of matching or adjustment between cognitive structures and the physical environment. Furthermore, it was argued that accommodation (accommodation), the process of modifying cognitive structures.

    Piaget proposed four stages of cognitive development, namely: (1) The sensorimotor stage which starts from birth to the age of 2 years. At this stage the child is dealing directly with the environment by using innate reflexes. Children will build an understanding of the world by coordinating their sensory experiences (such as seeing and hearing with their motoric movements (such as reaching, touching); (2) the pre-operational stage which lasts from 2 years to 7 years. At this stage the child begins to construct concepts, more symbolic than sensory-motor ways of thinking; (3) The concrete operational stage which lasts from about the age of 7 to 11. At this stage the child begins to think logically but only in concrete situations; (4) The stage formal operations starting from the age of 11 years.

    Piaget’s teaching principles are very often applied in programs that emphasize (1) learning through discovery and real experience and direct manipulation of other learning tools, materials or media and (2) the role of the teacher as someone who prepares the curriculum where students can get various extensive learning experience (Bahar, 2014:41)
    According to Santrock (2008: 54), Piaget’s theory is a strong constructivist view. M. Saekhan Muchith (Hidayati, 2009:4) states that according to the perspective of constructivism theory that learning is a process of building knowledge through real experience from the field. The constructivist approach is a student-centered approach that emphasizes the importance of individuals who actively build knowledge and understanding with teacher guidance (Santrock, 2008: 7). In line with constructivist theory, the teaching of guided discovery inquiry models is relevant to Piaget’s theory.

    C. Vygotsky’s learning theory
    According to Vygotsky (Bahar, 2014: 43) that learning occurs when children work or learn to handle tasks that have not been studied but these tasks are in the zone of proximal development. The zone of proximal development (ZPD) is Vigotsky’s term for tasks that are too difficult for children to master alone, but are mastered with guidance and assistance from adults or more skilled children (Santrock, 2008: 57).

    Another concept that goes along with the idea of ​​the zone of proximal development is scaffolding. Scaffolding is a technique that involves changing the level of support for learning (Santrock, 2008: 57). Assistance provided by teachers or colleagues who are more skilled at the beginning of learning is then reduced as the competence of students increases. This is intended so that students are increasingly responsible for their own learning after they are able to complete it on their own. These are some of the Learning Theories According to Expertswhich can be references in the field of education and in learning. Hope it is useful.

by Abdullah Sam
I’m a teacher, researcher and writer. I write about study subjects to improve the learning of college and university students. I write top Quality study notes Mostly, Tech, Games, Education, And Solutions/Tips and Tricks. I am a person who helps students to acquire knowledge, competence or virtue.

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