Sao Paulo

Sergipe, the second smallest state in Brazil, is located in the northeast of the country. Rich in natural resources, it houses 20 environmental conservation units.Sergipe is one of the 27 federative units in Brazil , being considered the second smallest. With an area of ​​21,918,454 km², the state is second only to the national capital – Brasília.

Because its limits occupy an area inferior to the other states, its territory is located in a region with low morphological movement.

Its capital is Aracaju , known for its beaches, natural beauty and cultural heritage.

Index [ hide ]

  • Geographic features
  • Relief
  • Climate
  • Vegetation
  • Hydrography
  • economy
  • Natural resources
  • Conservation units
  • Main environmental problems

Geographic features

Located in the northeast region , Sergipe is limited to the north with Alagoas; the southern and western part with Bahia ; and to the south with the Atlantic Ocean .

The state covers 75 municipalities, subdivided into thirteen microregions, which part of the Eastern, Agreste and Sertão Sergipanos mesoregions.

The micro-regions that make up the state are:

  1. Aracaju
  2. Sertão do São Francisco
  3. Propriá
  4. Agreste de Itabaiana
  5. Our Lady of Sorrows
  6. Cotinguiba
  7. Agreste do Lizard
  8. Tobias Barreto
  9. Mouthpiece
  10. Resort
  11. Cotinguiba
  12. Japaratuba
  13. Carira

In 2007, with the intention of planning state public policies, Sergipe was categorized by the state government in eight territories. The act took place through joint actions between the Federal University of Sergipe and organized civil entities.

According to the last census of the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) , its population in 2019 is estimated at 2,298,696 people. Natives born in the state are called sergipanos.


On the ground, there is a predominance of flat areas and small elevations. Therefore, its relief is constituted by depressions, in a large part of its territory, but there is also the presence of coastal plain with floodplains.

The highest point of its relief is the Serra Negra , with an altitude of 742m.

In this way, the Sergipe relief can be divided into:

  • Pediplano sertanejo : Its surface is flat, due to the dry climate that prevails in the region. In it, there is a limit altitude of 750m and low hills, creating valleys and slopes.
  • Coastal boards : In this formation, the soil is sandy, poor, stony and dry; and altitudes range from 300m to 700m. Deposited before the Sergipe Sedimentary Basin, they are found in the hills with convex tops. In lower areas, the soil is clayey, which ends up facilitating cultivation.
  • Coastal plain : It corresponds to 163 km, between the rivers Real and São Francisco. There is the presence of floodplains, due to the recurrent rains between the months of March and August. However, the interaction of the soil with the ocean does not allow agriculture, due to the lack of proliferation of nutrients. In the territory, the largest terrains measure up to 10m in altitude. The coastal plain has marine terraces, coastal streams, coastal dunes and estuaries, where mangroves and apicuns are noticeable.

In addition to the portions mentioned, the Domo de Itabaiana deserves special mention . Its relief is smooth and undulating, rising to altitudes that reach 659m.

Located in the region that is a transition zone between the Atlantic Forest and the Caatinga , it receives high rainfall (1,100 to 1,300 mm).

Also worth mentioning are the mountains of Cajueiro, Itabaiana and Comprida, in the semi-arid region.


In Sergipe’s territory there are two types of climate :

  1. Hot and humid tropical: With an average temperature of 25 ° C and three months of drought, it happens on the coast of the state;
  2. Hot and semi-humid tropical: Presenting an average annual temperature of 30 ° C and having a dry period between 4 to 6 months, its performance is in the transition area between the coast and the hinterland;
  3. Hot and semi-arid tropical: It has an average annual temperature of 40 ° C and a dry period of about 8 months, corresponding to the backlands.


The vegetation cover from Sergipe comprises the tropical forest, the wild and the caatinga.


Although it presents a narrow territorial strip, Sergipe is drained by eight hydrographic basins, which flow into the Ocean and form the perennial rivers.

  • São Francisco River Basin
  • Japaratuba River Basin
  • Sergipe River Basin
  • River Basin of the Vaza-Barris River
  • Piauí River Basin
  • Coastal Basin Group 1 and 2

The state is crossed by large rivers, five of which are the main: São Francisco, Vaza-Barris, Jarapatuba, Piauí and Real.


Extractivism, agriculture and livestock are the basis of Sergipe’s economy .

In agriculture, sugar cane cultivation (Zona da Mata) stands out; orange (Agreste); and coco-da-bay; smoke; cotton; cassava (Agreste).

It is important to note that its capital, Sergipe, is the fourth largest oil producer in Brazil.

Natural resources

The state is one of the largest oil producers in the country. In 1985 the first potash mine in the country was installed in the state.

Sergipe also holds large reserves of magnesium, rock salt and sulfur.

The Chlorochemical Pole of Sergipe comprises multiple industrial units for processing mineral raw materials, such as oil, gas, potassium, granite, halite, silvinite, carnalite, limestone and sulfur reserves.

Conservation units

Sergipe is home to 20 conservation units (UC). Of these, eight are private, three are from the Union, two are municipal and seven are state.

  1. Biological Reserve of Santa Izabel (1988)
  2. Serra de Itabaiana National Park (2005)
  3. Ibura National Forest (2005)
  4. Morro do Urubu Environmental Protection Area (1995)
  5. Environmental Protection Area of ​​the South Coast of the State of Sergipe (1993)
  6. Mata do Junco Wildlife Refuge (2007)
  7. Grota do Angico Natural Monument (2007)
  8. Conservation Units in Reclassification Phase (1990)

Main environmental problems

One of Sergipe’s main problems is the environmental one.

Urban growth has led to environmental problems, with the deforestation of green areas; waterproofing the soil with erosion; the intensification of traffic and, consequently, noise pollution; pollution of air, rivers and soils; floods.


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