Brazil is a country composed of a biodiversity and plurality of vegetation , along its vast territory.
Brazilian plant formations have peculiarities according to their areas of occurrence, resulting in vegetative and fauna diversity.
The restingas are constituted as coastal vegetal formations , which are adapted to the characteristics of the region, such as soil, relief and climate.
Index [ hide ]
- What is restinga?
- Main characteristics of restinga
- Places with restinga presence in Brazil
- Restinga examples in Brazil
- Restinga da Marambaia – The restinga of the naval base
What is restinga?
According to resolution 07, of July 23, 1996 , of the National Council for the Environment (CONAMA), “restinga vegetation is understood as the set of plant communities, physiognomically distinct, under marine and fluvial-marine influence. These communities, distributed in mosaic, occur in areas of great ecological diversity and are considered edaphic communities because they depend more on the nature of the soil than on the climate ”.
The sandbank is a sandy coastal plain, whose origin is marine. It includes the beach, sandy strands, depressions between strands, dunes and lagoon margins, with vegetation adapted to environmental conditions.
Ecologically speaking, restingas are categorized as coastal ecosystems. These are determined, physically, by their edaphic conditions (sandy soil) and by the marine influence.
Considered an ecosystem of the Atlantic Forest biome , its sedimentary origin began in the Quaternary period.
Due to their adaptation characteristic, the species of flora and fauna that inhabit it have mechanisms to support the physical factors present, such as salinity, high temperatures, high wind, water scarcity, soil instability, among others.
Main characteristics of restinga
- Sandy, acidic and nutrient-poor soil;
- Marine influence on its vegetation, such as in relation to humidity, temperature, salinity, etc .;
- Its vegetation stabilizes the mangrove, preventing the sand from invading it;
- Flora interconnection between the hillside and sandbank formations;
- Presentation, mostly, in mosaic format;
- Nutrient flow interactions between the restinga and the mangrove;
- High adaptability;
- It has a high number of bromeliads, balancing the system due to its ability to retain water and nutrients.
Places with restinga presence in Brazil
In Brazil , there is the presence of sandbank in the southeast and northeast regions . They are found on the coast of the following Brazilian states:
- Rio de Janeiro (Southeast Region)
- São Paulo (Southeast Region)
- Espírito Santo (Southeast Region)
- Bahia (Northeast Region)
- Sergipe (Northeast Region)
- Alagoas (Northeast Region)
Restinga examples in Brazil
- Restinga da Jurubatiba (North coast of the state of Rio de Janeiro)
- Restinga da Marambaia (coast of the state of Rio de Janeiro)
- Massingaaba restinga (coast of the state of Rio de Janeiro)
- Restinga da Praia de Itaguaré (coast of the state of São Paulo)
- Restinga de Bertioga (coast of the state of São Paulo)
Restinga da Marambaia – The restinga of the naval base
The Restinga de Marambaia is a sandbank belonging to the Navy of Brazil, the Brazilian Army and Brazilian Air Force.
Located in the municipalities of Mangaratiba, Itaguaí and Rio de Janeiro, all in the state of Rio de Janeiro, it is part of the Costa Verde. Access is restricted, as it is a military area.
According to historical records, the possession of Marambaia was made in 1856, in the name of Commander Breves, later transferring to his widow, in 1889.
In 1908, Restinga de Marambaia officially became the Brazilian Navy . That same year, they installed the School of Apprentices-Sailors, in addition to other activities.
However, even before the arrival of the sailors, Marambaia was used as a “fattening” space during the period of the black slave trade. After slavery, they populated Restinga, seeking to create a new life.
On the site, their descendants can still be found, in quilombos, with fishing and handicraft activities.
In the 1970s, when the training of marines in Restinga da Marambaia began, a conflict over land began between the descendants of slaves and the military, but the situation was controlled.