What is tachycardia?

A rapid resting heart rate of beats 100 or more per second in adults is called tachycardia. Heart rates faster than resting frequency may be normal in some cases, such as during exercise. An abnormal heart rate can occur when there are electrical problems in the heart.

An excessive heartbeat can lead to insufficient blood flow to the rest of the body because the heart does not work efficiently in that state. Increased heart rate increases the workload of the heart which in turn leads to an increase in oxygen demand.

Causes of tachycardia

There are many causes of tachycardia including: hypoglycemia, caffeine, alcohol, atrial flutter, amphetamine, anemia, antiarrhythmic agents, exercise, anxiety, cocaine, atrial fibrillation, atrial tachycardia, AV nodal tachycardia, fear, fever, syndrome Brugada and hypovolemia, among many others.

Types of tachycardia

The process of measuring the electrical activity of the heart is called electrocardiography (ECG). An electrocardiogram is used to classify tachycardia in a narrow or large complex. Decide whether the tachycardia is wide or narrow is based on the width of the graphic deflection (QRS Complex) seen on the ECG. Narrow tachycardia, also known as supraventricular tachycardia, originates in the atria, while broad tachycardia comes from the ventricles.

Sinus tachycardia

The body is built with mechanisms that maintain blood pressure levels in the body. When the pressure drops, the heart beats faster to increase blood pressure (reflex tachycardia). This reaction occurs when the blood volume is reduced or when an unexpected change occurs in the blood stream. Conditions such as fever, hyperventilation and diarrhea that increase metabolic demands can also cause tachycardia. When increased stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system occurs, the heart rate increases. Increased stimulation occurs due to both physical and psychological stress. Stimulants can also be ephedrine, amphetamines or cocaine.

Ventricular tachycardia

This is caused by abnormal electrical signals in the ventricles that lead to an increase in frequency. The speed leads to a low blood supply because the ventricles do not fill and contract well. Ventricular tachycardia, treated as a medical emergency, is a wide-complex tachycardia with a heart rate of 120-250 beats per minute.

Supraventricular tachycardia

This is an accelerated beat originating from above the ventricles. The condition lasts from a few minutes to hours. This type of tachycardia is congenital.

Atrial fibrillation

Atrial fibrillation occurs when electrical activity originates from the left atrium and not from the breast. This condition causes the rooms to contract at a high irregular rate. It is the most common tachycardia classified as a tight complex. It can be classified as broad tachycardia in cases where the rate is too high. A speed of over 150 per minute makes it difficult to determine the regularity of the rhythms.

The symptoms of tachycardia

While some tachycardia patients do not have any symptoms at all, others show the following signs: accelerated heart rate, chest pain (angina), confusion, dizziness, hypotension, dizziness, palpitations, panting, sudden weakness, and syncope.

Condition management

The way in which this condition is managed depends on the type of tachycardia, from the broad or narrow point of view, from the fact that the patient is stable or unstable and from the lack of stability caused by tachycardia. When a patient is unstable, it means that no important organ functions are performed and a cardiac arrest may occur. Unstable patients with narrow complex tachycardia are taken via intravenous adenosine. In all other cases cardioversion is attempted.

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