What is respiration.It is the process of interchange of gases between the air and the blood present in lungs. The gases exchanged are oxygen and carbon dioxide. Oxygen is taken up by RBC of blood in lung alveoli and carbon dioxide is released to be expelled by expiration.
The up and down movements of chest wall during inspiration and expiration varies in healthy condition and in disease condition. Also in normal healthy condition it varies during rest and after physical exercise or during various excitement. The counting of rate of respiration is a part of nursing job.
What Is Respiration What Are The Best Types of Respiration In Human Body
The types of respiration may be classified depending on rate and volume and. on some special characteristics of respiration.
Variation in rate
Slow respiration rate—Usually encountered in coma, cerebral conditions, opium addicts and morphine over dose. Rapid respiration rate is commonly found in lobar pneumonia, pleurisy with or without effusion, various fever and haemorrhagic condition.
(i) Variations in Volume or Depth of respiration—
Shallow respiration—(Rapid) Commonly seen in shock and other lung diseases.
Deep respiration (Slow)—is commonly seen in air hunger.
(ii) Other variants of respiration
These are special types of respiration encountered in specific disease condition of lungi or other parts of body.
Cheyne Stokes Respiration :
In this type successive respiration gradually get deeper and deeper till a maximum is attained and then fall off again until a pause (interval) of complete apnea (stoppage of respiration) occurs, to be followed by another wave of gradually deepening and then diminishing respiration. The pause may be for half a minute and the whole cycle is completed in less than two minutes. The Cheyne stokes respiration is most conspicuous when the patient is sleeping or unconscious. This type of respiration occurs mostly in heart and kidney failure (uremia), severe pneumonia, increased intracranial pressure and narcotic poisoning.
Biot type respiration :
This is a rare form of respiration, irregular in rhythm and depth with irregular pauses and occasional sighs but not periodic. This type is sometimes observed in meningitis.
This is type of respiration which occurs due to lack of oxygen as in air hunger. It is deep. This type is commonly found in haemorrhage, diabetic coma and collapse.
Stridor respiration :
It is a noisy, thrill and vibrating. It is due to obstruction in upper respiratory tract. There is difficulty in getting air in. This is commonly found in foreign body in air passage.
In this type the expiration or expulsion of air becomes difficult and loud. It is due to obstruction in
Procedure for counting respiration rate
- The procedure need not be told to the patient like other procedures.
- The respiratory rate can be counted while the patient is sitting or lying.
- Place the fingers on the wrist as if you are counting the pulse. But do not make enough pressure to feel pulse. The arm may be laid across the chest.
- Count the rise or fall of chest or abdomen for one minute,
- You may stand by the side of patient and count the respiratory movements of chest or abdomen.
- Record the rate of respiration, rhythm or character of respiration in chart.
- If there is gross abnormality in any of character of respiration alarming the patient’s condition, the senior nurse or attending doctor should be intimated immediately.
Observation to be made while counting respiratory movements
- Rate and regularity.
- Depth and volume of respiration*
- Abnormal respiratory sound, or wheeze.
- Colour of the patient—cyanosed or not.
- Movements of accessory muscles of respiration like sterno- mastoid and serratus muscle of abdominal wall.
- Movement of alae nasi or nostrils as in pneumonia.
- Difficulty in breathing or painful breathing.
- Each inspiration and expiration makes one count of respiration rate.